Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game Design

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Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2003-05-01
Publisher(s): New Riders
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Summary

Master the design principles required to create games for maximum playability. bull; Written by the leading game book author, Andrew Rollings, and IGDA founder, Ernest Adams. bull; By following the tips and techniques presented in this book, programmers will avoid common mistakes that detract from game playability. bull; Techniques are categorized by genre and type, allowing readers to quickly identify specific areas of interest.

Author Biography

Andrew Rollings (co-author of the highly successful book Game Architecture and Design) has a B.S. in Physics from Imperial College, London, and Bristol University, and has worked as a technical consultant spanning the games industry and the financial industry since 1995. Ernest Adams (co-founder of the IGDA) is an American game design consultant currently based in England. He has developed on-line, computer, and console games for everything from the IBM 360 mainframe to the Sony PlayStation 2. He is the author of the popular Designer's Notebook series of columns on the Gamasutra developers' webzine.

Ernest Adams is a freelance game designer and a member of the International Hobo game design consortium. He was most recently employed as a lead designer at Bullfrog Productions, and for several years before that he was the audio/video producer on the Madden NFL Football product line for Electronic Arts. He founded the International Game Developers Association in 1994.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxi
Part I The Elements of Game Design
What Is Game Design?
3(26)
Art, Science, or Craft?
4(1)
The Anatomy of Game Design
5(8)
The Importance of Game Design
5(2)
Seeking the Key Elements of Games
7(1)
Laying Down the Ground Rules
8(5)
Documenting the Design
13(5)
Why Do We Need Documents?
13(2)
The Types of Design Documents
15(3)
Anatomy of a Game Designer
18(9)
Imagination
19(1)
Technical Awareness
20(1)
Analytical Competence
21(1)
Mathematical Competence
22(1)
Aesthetic Competence
22(1)
General Knowledge
23(1)
Writing Skills
24(1)
Drawing Skills
25(1)
The Ability to Compromise
26(1)
Putting It Together
27(2)
Game Concepts
29(26)
Getting an Idea
29(5)
Dreaming the Dream
30(1)
Game Ideas from Other Media
31(1)
Game Ideas from Other Games
32(1)
From Dream to Game
33(1)
The Elements of a Game
34(7)
Games, Toys, and Puzzles
34(1)
Challenges, Gameplay, and the Victory Condition
35(1)
Setting, Interaction Model, and Perspective
36(2)
The Player's Role
38(1)
Modes and Structure
38(1)
Realism
39(1)
A Word About Story
40(1)
Understanding Your Audience
41(1)
Core Versus Casual
41(1)
The Genres of Interactive Entertainment
42(2)
The Types of Game Machines
44(3)
Home Game Consoles
44(1)
Personal Computers
45(1)
Handheld Game Machines
46(1)
Other Devices
46(1)
Motivations That Influence Design
47(6)
Market-Driven Games
47(1)
Designer-Driven Games
48(1)
License Exploitation
49(2)
Technology-Driven Games
51(1)
Art-Driven Games
52(1)
Entertainment and Integration
52(1)
Game Concept Worksheet
53(1)
Putting It Together
53(2)
Game Settings and Worlds
55(34)
The Purpose of a Game Setting
56(4)
The ``Graphics Versus Gameplay'' Debate
57(1)
Immersiveness and Suspension of Disbelief
58(1)
The Importance of Harmony
58(2)
The Dimensions of a Game World
60(21)
The Physical Dimension
60(5)
The Temporal Dimension
65(4)
The Environmental Dimension
69(6)
The Emotional Dimension
75(2)
The Ethical Dimension
77(4)
Realism and Abstraction
81(1)
The Save-Game Issue
82(5)
Reasons for Saving a Game
83(1)
Consequences for Immersion and Storytelling
84(1)
Ways of Saving a Game
84(2)
To Save or Not to Save
86(1)
Putting It Together
87(2)
Storytelling and Narrative
89(32)
Stories in Games
91(19)
Simple Backstories
92(1)
Who Is the Storyteller?
92(1)
The Monomyth and the Hero's Journey
93(17)
The Story Vehicle
110(8)
Plot Pacing
111(2)
Gameplay and Narrative
113(2)
Multi-Part Stories
115(3)
Storytelling and Narrative Worksheet
118(1)
Putting It Together
119(2)
Character Development
121(26)
Art-Driven Character Design
122(8)
Visual Design
122(1)
Physical Design and Super-Sensuality
123(5)
Cute Sidekicks
128(2)
Story-Driven Character Design
130(15)
Character Development
131(6)
The Character Archetypes
137(8)
Character Development Worksheet
145(1)
Putting It Together
145(2)
Creating the User Experience
147(52)
What Is the User Experience?
148(1)
The Interactive Element
149(1)
The Visual Element
149(1)
The Audio Element
149(1)
The Human-Computer Interface
149(17)
Evolution of the User Experience
150(16)
Components of the User Experience
166(30)
The Interactive Element
168(23)
The Visual Element
191(2)
The Audio Element
193(3)
User Interface Worksheet
196(1)
Putting It Together
197(2)
Gameplay
199(40)
Use of Language
200(1)
Defining Gameplay
200(36)
Pure Challenges
202(26)
Applied Challenges
228(8)
Gameplay Worksheet
236(1)
Putting It Together
237(2)
The Internal Economy of Games and Game Balancing
239(50)
What Is Game Balance?
240(2)
Static Balance
242(25)
Randomness and Average Values
243(1)
Dominant Strategies
244(6)
Symmetry
250(10)
Trade-Offs
260(1)
Combination
261(1)
Emergence
262(3)
Feedback Loops
265(2)
Summary of Static Balance
267(1)
Dynamic Balance
267(14)
What Are We Balancing?
268(3)
Balanced Systems
271(10)
Tools for Balancing
281(4)
Design for Modification
281(2)
Design Prototyping
283(1)
Future Potential
284(1)
Internal Economy Worksheet
285(1)
Putting It Together
285(4)
Part II The Genres of Games
Action Games
289(32)
Action Game Genres
289(9)
Shooters
290(6)
Non-Shooters
296(2)
Design Elements
298(20)
The Rules
299(12)
Victory Conditions
311(2)
Interaction Model
313(1)
Perspective
314(1)
User Interface Design
315(3)
Special Design Considerations for Action Games
318(1)
Action Game Worksheet
319(1)
Putting It Together
320(1)
Strategy Games
321(26)
The Common Elements of Strategy Games
323(20)
Themes
324(14)
Setting
338(1)
Interaction Model
339(1)
Perspective
340(1)
User Interface
341(1)
Designing Opponents
342(1)
Strategy Game Worksheet
343(1)
Putting It Together
344(3)
Role-Playing Games
347(24)
The Common Elements of Role-Playing Games
348(19)
Themes
350(1)
Setting
351(7)
Interaction Model
358(6)
Perspective
364(3)
CRPG Worksheet
367(1)
Putting It Together
368(3)
Sports Games
371(24)
The Common Elements of Sports Games
372(6)
Rules
372(1)
Competition Modes
373(1)
Victory and Loss Conditions
373(1)
Setting
374(1)
Interaction Model
375(1)
Perspective
375(1)
User Interface Design
376(1)
Player Roles
377(1)
Structure
378(1)
Special Design Issues for Sports Games
378(15)
Physics for Sports Games
378(1)
Rating the Athletes
379(1)
Athlete AI Design
380(2)
Injuries
382(1)
Arcade Mode Versus Simulation Mode
383(1)
Simulating Matches Automatically
384(1)
Licenses, Trademarks, and Publicity Rights
385(2)
Audio Commentary
387(3)
Other Peculiarities
390(3)
Sports Game Worksheet
393(1)
Putting It Together
394(1)
Vehicle Simulations
395(22)
The Common Elements of Vehicle Simulations
396(11)
The Rules
397(1)
Competition Modes
398(1)
Gameplay and Victory Conditions
399(3)
Setting
402(1)
Interaction Model
403(1)
Perspective
403(2)
User Interface Design
405(1)
The Player's Role
406(1)
Other Vehicles
407(4)
Boats and Ships
407(2)
Tanks and Mechs
409(2)
Spacecraft
411(1)
Special Design Considerations for Vehicle Simulations
411(3)
Creating the Sense of Speed
411(1)
G-Forces
412(1)
Designing Opponents
413(1)
Intellectual Property Rights
413(1)
Vehicle Simulation Worksheet
414(1)
Putting It Together
415(2)
Construction and Management Simulations
417(26)
The Common Elements of CMSs
418(16)
Rules
418(8)
Setting
426(1)
Gameplay
426(4)
The Player's Role
430(2)
User Interface
432(2)
Special Design Considerations for CMSs
434(5)
Simulating Individuals
434(2)
Advisors
436(1)
Pure Business Simulations
437(2)
Hybrid Games
439(1)
Construction and Management Simulation Worksheet
439(1)
Putting It Together
440(3)
Adventure Games
443(34)
What Is an Adventure Game?
443(4)
The Original Adventure
444(1)
The Growth of Adventure Games
445(1)
Adventure Games Today
445(2)
The Common Elements of Adventure Games
447(15)
Setting
447(1)
Interaction Model
448(1)
Perspective
449(6)
Player Roles
455(1)
Structure
456(1)
Storytelling
457(3)
Challenges
460(2)
User Interface Design
462(6)
Avatar Movement
462(1)
Manipulating Objects
463(5)
Special Design Considerations
468(7)
Conversations with NPCs
468(3)
Mapping
471(1)
Journal Keeping
472(1)
A Few Things to Avoid
472(3)
Adventure Game Worksheet
475(1)
Putting It Together
476(1)
Artificial Life, Puzzle Games, and Other Genres
477(22)
Artificial Life Games
477(10)
Artificial Pets
478(2)
The Sims
480(2)
Genetic A-Life Games
482(5)
Puzzle Games
487(6)
Scott Kim's Eight Steps
487(3)
What Computers Bring to Puzzles
490(1)
Checking the Victory Condition
491(2)
Games for Girls
493(4)
Mattel's Approach
494(2)
A Few Misconceptions
496(1)
A Final Note
497(1)
Putting It Together
497(2)
Online Games
499(34)
Advantages of Online Games
500(3)
Player Socializing
500(1)
Human Intelligence Instead of Artificial Intelligence
501(1)
Online Gameplay Versus Local Multi-Player Gameplay
501(2)
Disadvantages of Online Games
503(4)
Technical Issues
503(1)
It's Harder to Suspend Disbelief
504(1)
Misbehavior
505(1)
The Need to Produce Content
505(1)
Customer Service
506(1)
Design Issues for Online Gaming
507(11)
Arriving Players
507(1)
Disappearing Players
508(2)
Real-Time Versus Turn-Based Games
510(1)
Chat
511(2)
Collusion
513(2)
Technical Security
515(3)
Persistent Worlds
518(14)
The Origins of Persistent-World Gaming
518(1)
How Persistent Worlds Differ from Games
518(3)
The Four Types of Players
521(1)
Creating an Avatar
522(2)
World Models
524(1)
Avatar Death
525(1)
The Player-Killer Problem
526(3)
The Nature of Time
529(1)
Persistent World Economies
530(1)
Final Thoughts on Persistent Worlds
531(1)
Putting It Together
532(1)
The Future of Gaming
533(61)
Gaming Hardware
533(9)
Location-Based Entertainment
534(2)
Home Video Game Consoles
536(2)
Personal Computers
538(2)
Handheld Game Machines, PDAs, and Telephones
540(1)
Virtual Reality
541(1)
The Future of Game Programming
542(6)
Scene Representation
543(1)
Animation
544(2)
Natural Language Processing
546(2)
Game Genres
548(6)
Action Games
549(1)
Strategy Games
550(1)
Role-Playing Games
551(1)
Sports Games
551(1)
Vehicle Simulations
552(1)
Construction and Management Simulations
553(1)
Adventure Games
553(1)
Broadband Networking
554(4)
Electronic Distribution
554(3)
High-Speed Online Gaming
557(1)
The Distant Future
558(3)
Automated Programming
558(3)
Interactive Entertainment as an Art Form
561(5)
Interactive Artwork
562(1)
Requirements for Recognition
562(3)
Breaking New Ground
565(1)
A Few Final Words
566(3)
Part III Appendixes
A Sample Design Documents
569(20)
Creating and Using Design Documents
569(1)
Using Pictures in a Document
569(1)
Protecting Your Rights
570(1)
About These Templates
571(1)
The High-Concept Document
571(1)
High-Concept Statement
572(1)
Features
572(1)
Overview
573(1)
Further Details
574(2)
The Game Treatment
576(1)
Title Page
577(1)
Executive Summary
578(1)
Game Overview
578(3)
Production Details
581(2)
Competition
583(1)
Game World
583(2)
The Design Script
585(1)
How Big Should It Be?
585(1)
The Design Web Site
586(1)
Chris Taylor's Template
587(2)
B Bibliography
589(5)
Game Design
589(1)
Game Theory
590(1)
History and Sociology of Video Games
591(1)
Architecture and Graphic Design
592(1)
Writing and Narrative
592(2)
Index 594

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