Child Development Context, Culture, and Cascades

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Pub. Date: 2021-11-09
Publisher(s): Oxford University Press
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Child Development: Context, Culture, and Cascades seeks to convey the wonder and awe of child development. Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda aims to inspire students to understand the process of change and to think about change through the eyes of a developmental scientist.

To appreciate child development requires understanding the basics: What is changing and why? Accordingly, each chapter describes changes in a select domain of development at a specific time in childhood (the what), and considers the many forces that spur changes in children (the how). Within and
across chapters, students will learn about interactions between biology and environment; the role of contexts (e.g., family, school, community, and so on) in development; and how cultural views and practices infuse children's everyday lives. Finally, because the path of a river is affected by the
flowing waters that preceded it, students will come to appreciate how small changes can exert downstream effects on development in the process of developmental cascades. Changing children swim in ever-changing waters. However, beyond providing the fundamentals of child development, the ultimate
message of this book runs much deeper than words on a page. Students will see that answers to the "whats" and "hows" of change are both fundamental to science and hold a key to improving the lives of children and families around the world.

Author Biography

Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda is Professor of Developmental Psychology, in the Department of Applied Psychology at the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at New York University, where she directs the Play & Language Lab. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Society
and has served in various capacities (past and current) such as President of the International Congress of Infant Studies; member of the Governing Council of the Society for Research on Child Development; associate editor of Infancy and Journal of Experimental Psychology: General; reviewer on
editorial boards of several journals and panels of federal and foundation funding agencies. Tamis-LeMonda's research focuses on infant and child language, communication, object play, literacy, and motor skill, and the roles of language input, home experiences, parenting, and culture in infant
learning and development across domains. Tamis-LeMonda's research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Mental Health, Administration for Children, Youth and Families, the LEGO Foundation, Ford Foundation,
and the Robinhood Foundation. She has over 200 publications in peer-reviewed journals and books, and co-edited the volumes Child Psychology: A Handbook of Contemporary Issues, 1st 2nd 3rd Editions (Psychology Press, 1999, 2006, 2016), Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives
(Psychology Press, 2002; 2013), The Development of Social Cognition and Communication (Psychology Press, 2005), and the Handbook of Infant Development (Cambridge University Press, 2020). Her husband Richard, children Brittany, Christopher, and Michael; grandchildren Lila and Zoe; and dog Lucy are a
constant source of joy and continual reminder to always find the time to take a break, go for a walk, host a holiday, do some cooking, and relish time with family.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1: Goals, Theories, and Methods
The Goals of Developmental Science
Describing Development
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Change: Coral Reef Fish or Frogs?
Differences among Children in Development
Developmental Stability
Explaining Development
Genes and Environment: The Nature-Nurture See-Saw
Developmental Cascades
Applying Developmental Science
Raising Children
Programs and Policies
Theoretical Orientations
Foundational Theories
Evolutionary Theory
Psychodynamic Theories
Constructivism: Piaget's Stage Theory
Lev Vygotsky and the Origins of Socio-Cultural Theory
Contemporary Theories
Nativist Approaches
Social Learning Theory
Information Processing Theories
Dynamic Systems Theories
Bio-Ecological Theories
Sociocultural Theories
Research in Developmental Science
Conducting Research
Hypothesis-Driven Research and the Scientific Method
Discovery-Based Science
Methods: Gathering Data
Study Designs
Ensuring Scientific Rigor and Integrity
Scientific Replicability and Transparency
Ethics in Research
Closing Thoughts: Setting the Stage

Chapter 2: Heredity, Environment, and the Brain
Genetics and the Environment
Genetic Foundations
Chromosomes, DNA, and Genes
From Gametes to Human Beings
Decoding the Genome
The Microbiome
Contexts of Environmental Influences on Gene Expression
How Do Genes and Environment Interact?
Epigenetic Principles: From Animals to Humans
Summing Up: The Library Metaphor
The Brain
Brain Anatomy and Function
Midbrain and Hindbrain
Neurons and Glial Cells
New Ways to Study the Brain
Brain Development
How the Brain Changes
Periods of Brain Development
Contexts and the Brain
Experience-Expectant Plasticity
Experience-Dependent Plasticity
Timing of Experience
Looking to the Future
Developmental Cascades
Responding to Experiences: Dandelions and Orchids
Susceptibility to Addiction
Response to Maltreatment
Closing Thoughts: Dismantling the Nature Nurture Controversy

Chapter 3: Prenatal and Postnatal Health and Physical Development
Conception and Prenatal Development
Influences on Conception
Fertility Treatments
Prenatal Development
Germinal Period
Embryonic Period
Fetal Period
Contextual Influences on Prenatal Development
Toxic Substances
Maternal Nutrition and Exercise
Maternal Prenatal Care
Maternal Psychological Functioning
Birth and Infant Health
Labor and Birth
Stages of Labor
Neonatal Health
Birth Complications
Contextual Influences on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight
Infant Brain Development
Infant Sleep and Nutrition
Cultural Influences on Infant Sleep
Nutrition and Breastfeeding
Contextual Influences on Breastfeeding
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Fetal Movement
Cascades from Fetal Auditory Experiences
Cascades from Maternal Stress
Cascades from Infant Birth Weight
Cascades from Parenting and Protective Factors
Closing Thoughts: The Dynamics of Development


Chapter 4: Perceptual and Motor Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
Perceptual Development
The Study of Perception in Infants
Early Theories
The Ecological Theory of Perception
Methods for Studying Infant Perception
Tasting and Smelling
Taste and Odor Preferences
Contexts of Taste Perception
Acuity and Contrast
Perceiving Colors
Shape and Size Constancy
Perceiving Objects as “Whole”
Tracking Motion and Actions
Perceiving Depth
Face Perception
Contexts of Face Perception
Loudness and Pitch
Perceiving Music
Perceiving Speech
From Perception to Meaning: Categorization and Integration
Perceptual Integration
Perceptual Categorization
Motor Development
The Study of Motor Development in Infants
Gesell and the Concept of Motor Milestones
Myrtle McGraw and Motor Practice
Esther Thelen and Dynamic Systems
Developments in Infant Motor Skill
Reaching, Grasping, and Tool Use
Locomoting: Crawling, Cruising, Walking
Contexts of Motor Development
Home Context of Motor Development
Cultural Context of Motor Development
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Perceptual Development
Cascades from Motor Development
Closing Thoughts: The Engines of Learning and Development

Chapter 5: Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
Learning about the Physical World
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Substages 1-5
Mental Representation (Sensorimotor Substage 6): 18-24 Months
Challenges to Piaget That Inspired New Theoretical Orientations
Nativist Tests of Infant Core Capacities
Infant Understanding of Object Permanence
Infant Understanding of Solidity and Substance
Infant Understanding of Gravity and Support
Testing Core Capacity for Understanding Number
Challenges to Nativism
Dynamic Systems Insights into Cognitive Performance
Modifying the A-Not-B Task
Changing Sensory Feedback
Information Processing: Attention in Cognition
Phases of Attention
Selective Attention
Processing Information
Contexts of Cognitive Development
Home Context of Cognitive Development
Socio-Economic Context of Cognitive Development
Cultural Context of Cognitive Development
Learning about the Social World
Understanding Others' Attention
Looking, Gaze, and Joint Attention
Understanding Others' Actions, Knowledge, and Beliefs
Interpreting Actions
Imitating Actions
Inferring Knowledge and Beliefs
Contexts of Social Cognition
Home Context of Social Cognition
Cultural Context of Social Cognition
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Cognitive Development
Cascades from Social Cognition
Closing Thoughts: Looking into the Mind of a Child

Chapter 6: Language Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
Describing Language Development
Phonological Development: Learning Speech Sounds
Perceiving and Discriminating among the Phonemes of One's Language
Identifying the Phonemes that Comprise Words
Producing Sounds
Semantic Development: Learning Word Meaning
Receptive Language
Productive Language
Syntactic Development: Putting Words Together
Understanding Sentences and Syntactic Bootstrapping
The Path to Producing Sentences
Pragmatic Development: Learning Communication Norms
Turn Taking
Attention to Nonverbal Social Cues
Explaining Language Development
Nativist Accounts of Language Development
Universal Grammar and the LAD
Cognitive Biases
Deaf Children and Sign Language
Critical Periods and the Case of "Genie"
Connectionist and Dynamic Systems Theory
Connectionist Theory
Dynamic Systems Theory
Sociocultural Theory
Can Infants Learn Language from Media?
Contexts of Language Development
Family Context of Language Development
Socioeconomic Context of Language Development
Childcare Context of Language Development
Multilingual Context of Language Development
Cultural Context of Language Development
Developmental Cascades
Language Development Influences Cognitive Development
Language Development Influences Later School Success
Closing Thoughts: Language Development is Much More than Language

Chapter 7: Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
Emotional Development
Evolutionary Theory and the Functions of Emotions
Are Emotions Universal?
Are Emotions Adaptive?
Expressing Emotions
Infant Positive Emotions
Infant Negative Emotions
Understanding Emotions
Discriminating Emotions
Using Emotional Information
Regulating Emotions
Development in Infant Emotion Regulation
Effortful Control
The History of Temperament Studies
Contemporary Models of Temperament
Stability in Temperament
Social and Cultural Contexts of Emotional Development and Temperament
Contexts of Infant Temperament and Goodness-of-Fit
Parenting Context of Emotional Development
Cultural Context of Emotional Development
Social Development
Evolutionary Views of Attachment
Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
Contexts of Attachment
Parenting Context of Attachment
Cultural Context of Attachment
Peer Relations and the Origins of Morality
Prosocial Behaviors
Moral Development and Aggression
Aspects of Self
The Ecological and Interpersonal Selves
The Objective Self
Contexts of Self-Identity
Gender Socialization: Home Context
Gender Socialization: Cultural Context
Developmental Cascades
Emotion Regulation and Language Learning
Emotion Regulation and Preschool Learning
Emotion Regulation and Later Social Functioning
Attachment and Later Adjustment
Closing Thoughts: Cultivating Emotional and Social Competence


Chapter 8: Physical Development and Health in Early Childhood
Physical Development
Brain, Physical, and Motor Development
Brain Development
Physical and Motor Development
Home Context of Brain Development
Cultural and Historical Context of Physical Growth
Food Acceptance and Healthy Diets
Childhood Obesity
Family Context of Nutrition
Developmental Changes in Sleep Patterns
How Much Sleep Do Young Children Need?
Family Context of Sleep
Childhood Illness, Injury, and Maltreatment
Infectious Diseases
Chronic Diseases
Unintentional Childhood Injury
Maltreatment and Exposure to Violence
Family Context of Childhood Illness, Injury, and Maltreatment
Neighborhood Context and Lead Exposure
Cultural Context of Childhood Illness, Injury, and Maltreatment
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Sleep Deprivation
Cascades from Childhood Illness, Injury, and Maltreatment
Closing Thoughts: Promotion and Prevention

Chapter 10: Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood
Emotional Development
Emotional Understanding
Complex and Mixed Emotions
The Causes and Consequences of Emotions
Emotion Regulation and Temperament
Emotion and Behavior Regulation
Individual Differences and Temperament
Contexts of Emotional Development
Parenting Context of Emotional Development
Sibling Context of Emotional Development
School Context of Emotional Development
Cultural Context of Emotional Development
Social Development
Attachment and Caregiver-Child Relationship Quality
Assessment of Attachment in Young Children
Attachment and Quality of Parenting
Peers and Friends
Play with Peers and Friends
Family Context of Social Skills and Aggression
Cultural Context of Social Development
Identity Development
Gender Identity
Family Context of Gender Development
Biological Context of Gender Development
Ethnic and Racial Identity
Family Context and Racial and Ethnic Identity
Moral Development
Psychodynamic View: Freud and the Id
Cognitive Developmental View: Piaget and Kohlberg
Social Domain View
Family Context of Moral Development
Cultural Context of Moral Development
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Emotional Understanding
Cascades from Emotional Regulation
Cascades from Attachment
Cascades from Peer Relationships
Cascades from Moral Development
Closing Thoughts: Development Starts Small


Chapter 11: Physical Development and Health in Middle Childhood
Brain and Physical Development
Brain Development
Changes to White and Gray Matter
Changes to Brain Networks
Coordination Across Brain Regions
Family Context and Brain Development
Physical Development
Gross Motor Skills
Fine Motor Skills
Sex Differences in Physical Growth and Motor Skills
Contexts of Physical Development
Food Insecurity
Contexts of Nutrition
How Much Sleep do Children Need?
Sleep Problems in Children
Family Context of Sleep
Injury and Illness
Infectious Illnesses
Chronic Diseases
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Brain Development
Cascades from Physical Activity
Cascades from Food Insufficiency and Malnutrition
Cascades from Obesity
Cascades from Sleep
Cascades from Chronic Disease
Closing Thoughts: Stability and Change

Chapter 12: Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
Cognitive Development
Piagetian Theory
Concrete Operational Thought
Limitations in Concrete Operational Thought
Information Processing
Working Memory and Processing Speed
Metacognition and Memory Strategies
Semantic Memory: A Growing Knowledge Base
Episodic and Autobiographical Memory
Intelligence and Individual Differences
Defining Intelligence
A Single Mental Ability
Multiple Abilities
Measuring Intelligence
The History of Intelligence Testing
Reliability, Validity, and Bias of Intelligence Tests
Nature and Nurture in Intelligence
The Heritability of Intelligence
Environmental Influences on Intelligence
Academic Skills
Language, Literacy, and Math
Vocabulary and Grammar
Reading and Writing
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Views of Intelligence
Contexts of Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement
Family Context and Cognitive Development
School Context and Cognitive Development
Cultural Context and Cognitive Development
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Academics to Later School Performance
Cascades from Academics to Social Relationships
Cascading Effects in Children with Disabilities
Closing Thoughts: Thinking about Thinking

Chapter 13: Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood
Emotional Development
Understanding Emotions
Self-Conscious Emotions: Pride, Shame, and Guilt
The Causes and Consequences of Emotions
Theory of Mind and Moral Reasoning
Expressing and Regulating Emotions
Display Rules and Regulating Emotions
Emotional Coping
Contexts of Emotional Development
Family Context of Emotional Development
Peer Context of Emotional Development
Cultural Context of Emotional Development
Social Development
Self-Identity Development
Erik Erikson's Theory
Evaluating Self
Gender Identity
Ethnicity and Race
Inter-Group Relations and Moral Development
Contexts of Self-Identity Development
Family Context and Gender Self-Identity
Family and School Contexts and Racial Self-Identity
Peer and Media Contexts and Gender Self-Identity
Relationships with Parents
Parenting Styles
Relationships with Peers
Peer Acceptance and Rejection
The Pain of Exclusion
Contexts of Social Development
Family and School Context of Social Development
Social Media Context of Social Development
Cultural Context of Social Development
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Emotional Development
Cascades from Self-Identity
Cascades from Gender Self-Identity
Cascades from Peer Acceptance and Rejection
Cascades as Illustrated through a 20-year Study
Closing Thoughts: Vulnerabilities and Strengths


Chapter 14: Physical Development and Health in Adolescence
Physical and Brain Development
Brain Development
Synaptogenesis, Pruning, and Myelination
Asymmetry in Brain Development
Primary and Secondary Sex Characteristics
The Growth Spurt
Stages of Puberty
Home Context of Puberty
Cultural Context of Puberty
Emergence of Sexual Behavior
Learning about Sexuality and Engaging in Sex
Peer Context of Sexuality
Cultural Context of Sexuality
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Pregnancy
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Pregnancy and Parenthood in Adolescence
Contexts of Adolescent Pregnancy
Eating Disorders
Overweight or Obese
Contexts of Eating Disorders and Obesity
Circadian Rhythms
Too Little Sleep
Poor Quality Sleep
Contexts of Sleep
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Brain Development
Cascades from Pubertal Timing
Cascades from Obesity
Closing Thoughts: Primed to Learn

Chapter 15: Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Cognitive Development
Piagetian Theory
Abstract and Propositional Thinking
Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning
Rethinking the Formal Operational Stage
Information Processing
Selective Attention and Flexibility
Working Memory and Processing Speed
Memory Strategies and Metacognition
Social Cognition
Adolescent Egocentrism
Moral Reasoning
Moral Behavior
Cultural Context of Adolescent Cognitive Development
Cultural Tools and Activities
Culture and Schooling
Language, Literacy, and Academic Skills
Language and Literacy Development
Vocabulary and Grammar
Reading and Writing
Male and Female Differences in Academic Proficiencies
School Engagement and Motivation
Components of School Engagement
Academic Motivation and Performance
Explaining Motivation
Contexts of Academic Achievement
Family and Peer Context of Academic Achievement
School Context of Academic Achievement
Neighborhood Context of Academic Achievement
Developmental Cascades
Cascading Effects of Cognitive Development on Civic Engagement
Cascading Effects of Academic Motivation on Life Trajectories
Cascading Effects of School Drop Out
Preventing School Drop Out
Closing Thoughts: The Blurred Boundary between Ability and Performance

Chapter 16: Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence
Emotional Development
Emotional Experiences
Emotional Reactivity
Emotional Valence
Adolescent Depression
Development of Adolescent Self-Regulation
Development of Risk Taking
Contexts in Emotional Development
Family and Peer Contexts of Emotional Development
School and Neighborhood Contexts of Emotional Development
Erik Erikson's Theory
Identity Achievement versus Role Confusion
The Psychosocial Moratorium
James Marcia and Identity Statuses
Marcia's Identity Statuses
Adolescent Self-esteem
Ethnic Identity
Development of Ethnic Identity
Navigating Two Identities
Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation
Gender Identity
Sexual Orientation
Romantic Relationships
Contexts of Self-Identity
Family Context of Self-Identity
School Context of Self-Identity
Cultural Context of Self-Identity
Social Relationships
Relationships with Parents and Siblings
Closeness and Attachment to Parent
Conflict with Parents
Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Disclosure
Immigrant Context of the Adolescent-Parent Relationship
Relationships with Peers
Cliques and Crowds
Social Media
Benefits of Social Media Use
Overuse of Social Media
Disclosing Too Much Information
Developmental Cascades
Cascades from Adolescent Depression and Self-Esteem
Cascades from Relationships with Parents
Cascades from Relationships with Peers
Closing Thoughts: Positive Cascades

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