Cultural History of the Uneme from the Earliest Times To 1962

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Format: Hardcover
Pub. Date: 2004-02-01
Publisher(s): Michigan State Univ Pr
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Summary

"A Cultural History of the Uneme from the Earliest Times to 1962 provides a comprehensive insight into the historical and cultural past of the Uneme from the pre-colonial period to 1962. It focuses on the evolution and development of the Uneme indigenous culture." "The publication is an authoritative reference text to students of history, archaelogy, anthropology, sociology, African studies, political science, administration, cultural studies as well as professional historians, administrators, archivists, researchers and the general reader."--BOOK JACKET.

Author Biography

Hakeem B. Harunah he teaches History at the University of Lagos, Nigeria, where he had served as Acting Head of Department of History.

Table of Contents

Dedication v
Foreword xxiii
Preface and Acknowledgements xxv
List of Maps
xxxi
Abbreviations xxxiii
Introduction
1(26)
Focus of the Book
3(10)
Issues and Concepts that are Germane to the Book
13(14)
Culture
13(1)
Sociopolitical Culture
14(3)
Technoeconomic Culture
17(2)
Caste Prejudice
19(1)
Change
20(2)
Continuity
22(1)
Notes and References
23(4)
A. HISTORICAL ORIGINS AND EARLY MIGRATIONS OF THE UNEME BEFORE c.1370 A.D.
27(46)
Theories of Origins and Migrations of the Uneme
33(40)
Introduction
33(2)
Old Theories of Origins and Migrations
35(17)
Theory of Origin in Heaven
36(4)
Theory of Ife Origin
40(9)
Origin in a ``Small District between Lagos and Benin
49(1)
Theory of Migration From the Igun Area
50(1)
Theory of Origin in Obadan
51(1)
New Theories of Origins and Migrations of the Uneme
52(8)
Places of Early Settlement by the Uneme People in the Benin Area Before c.1370 A.D.
60(3)
Notes and References
63(10)
B. DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNEME INDIGENOUS CULTURE IN BENIN BEFORE c.1370 A.D.
73(110)
The Uneme Indigenous Sociopolitical Culture in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
75(72)
Introduction
75(1)
The Uneme Family System in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
76(5)
The Structure of the Uneme Quarters, Kindreds, Villages and Clans in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
81(3)
The Uneme Age-Grades in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
84(6)
The Uneme Marriage System in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
90(9)
The Uneme Indigenous Names in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
99(6)
The Uneme Indigenous Religion in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
105(13)
The Nature of Uneme Festivals in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
118(10)
The Uneme Patterns of Administration in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
128(4)
Notes and References
132(15)
The Uneme Indigenous Technoeconomic Culture in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
147(36)
Introduction
147(1)
The Uneme Indigenous Iron Technology in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
147(3)
The Uneme Iron-Working and Production Processes.
150(2)
Classification of Iron Production and Development Processes
152(1)
The Location of the Uneme Iron-Producing (Blacksmithing) Industry
152(2)
Equipping the Industry with Operational Materials
154(8)
Forging and Final Production
162(2)
Various Types of Iron Implements Produced by Uneme Blacksmiths
164(9)
Keeping Strictly to Themselves the Information About the Source of Success of their Indigenous Iron Technology
173(1)
Trade
174(1)
The Internal (Domestic) Trade of the Uneme in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
174(1)
Non-Regular and Non-Conventional Markets
174(1)
Regular (Conventional) Markets or Local Markets
175(1)
The External Trade of the Uneme in Benin Before c.1370 A.D.
176(2)
Notes and References
178(5)
C. THE UNEME MIGRATION FROM BENIN IN c.1370 A.D.
183(26)
A Two-Phased Migration From Benin in c.1370 A.D.
185(24)
Introduction
185(1)
The First Phase of the Uneme Migration From Benin in c.1370 A.D.
185(5)
Migration Northwards Through Obadan, Near Benin, in c.1370 A.D.
190(3)
Further Movement Into the Interior and Their Settlement in Ugboha (Esan Territory) in the Present Central Edo State in Mid-1370s
193(1)
Arrival in Agbede Area in Etsako WestTerritory of the Present Northern Edo State in Mid-1370s
194(3)
Further Northward Migration Into Oghomeze (Imiava) in Etsako Central Area in about the Late 1380s
197(1)
Continuous Northward Movement: Arrival in the Okene-Ebira Area of the Present Kogi State in About Mid-1390s
197(1)
End of Uneme's Northward Migrations and a Southward Retreat: Split of the Group into Two Divisions in the Process of their Dispersal from Okene in About the Late 1390s
198(1)
The Sub-Group that Moved Southwestwards Into Akoko-Edo Territory of the Present Northern Edo State in about the Late 1390s
199(1)
The Sub-Group that Moved Southeastwards into Uneme's Earlier Place of Settlement in Oghomeze (Imiava) in Etsako Central Area Since about the Late 1390s
200(1)
The Second Phase of the Uneme Migration From Benin in c.1370 A.D.
201(1)
Eastward Migration into the Agbor and Asaba Areas of the Present Delta State in about the Early 1370s, and Into Awka in the Present Anambra State in about the 1380s and 1390s
201(2)
Notes and References
203(6)
D. THE FOUNDING AND EARLY GROWTH OF NEW UNEME COMMUNITIES OUTSIDE BENIN SINCE c.1370 A.D.
209(68)
The Early Growth of New Uneme Villages, Towns, Clans and Allied Communities from the 1370s to the Early 1900s
211(66)
Introduction
211(1)
The New Uneme Communities that Emerged in the Present Akoko-Edo Local Government Area of Northern Edo State Since about the Late 1390s and Early 1900s
212(1)
The Founding and Early Growth of Uneme Akpama in about the Late 1390s
212(3)
The Founding and Growth of Uneme Aki-Osu in about the Early 1400s
215(2)
The Founding and Growth of Uneme Erhurun in about the Early 1400s
217(3)
The Founding and Growth of Uneme Nekhua in about the Early 1400s
220(3)
The Founding and Early Growth of Uneme Ekpedo in about the Mid-1400s
223(3)
The Founding and Growth of Uneme Aiyetoro in the Early 1900s
226(3)
The New Uneme Communities that Surfaced in the Present Etsako Central Local Government Area of Edo State since about the Late 1390s and Early 1800s
229(1)
The Founding and Early Growth of Uneme Oghomeze (Imiava) in about the Late 1390s
230(7)
The Founding and Growth of Uneme Uzanu in the about the Early 1830s and 1840s
237(3)
The Founding and Growth of Uneme Udochi in about the Early 1830s and 1840s
240(5)
The Founding and Growth of Uneme Ologua in about the Early 1830s and 1840s
245(3)
The Founding and Growth of Uneme Anegbette in about the Early 1830s and 1840s
248(5)
The New Uneme Communities that Fourished in the Okene and Igala Areas of the Present Kogi State Since about the Late 1390s
253(1)
The Growth and Development of some Uneme Communities among the Ebira in Okene and Its Environs since about the Late 1390s and Early 1400s
253(1)
The Uneme in Present-Day Okene since the Late 1390s and Early 1400s
254(2)
The Uneme People that Had Spread to Other Parts of Ebiraland During the Period
256(2)
The Growth and Development of Certain Uneme Communities and Lineages in Igala Territory since about the Late 1390s and Early 1800s
258(1)
The New Uneme Communities that Emerged in the Agbor and Asaba Areas of the Present Delta State, and in the Awka Area of the Present Anambra State Since about the Early 1370s and 1390s
258(1)
Those that Occupied the Site of Present-Day Agbor in c.1370 A.D.
258(2)
The Migrant Uneme in the Area of Present-Day Asaba in about the 1370s and 1380s
260(1)
The Migrant Uneme in the Area of Present-Day Awka in Anambra State in about the 1380s and 1390s
261(4)
Notes and References
265(12)
E. CULTURAL ADAPTATION, CHANGE AND CONTINUITIES IN THE NEW UNEME COMMUNITIES THAT EMERGED SINCE ABOUT THE 1390s And Early 1900s
277(78)
Case Studies
279(76)
Introduction
279(2)
The Example of the New Uneme Communities that Emerged in the Akoko-Edo Area of the Present Northern Edo State since about the Late 1390s and Early 1900s
281(1)
Change of Environment
281(1)
Location of the New Environment
281(1)
Environmental Conditions in the Territory
281(1)
The Climate and Vegetation of the Territory
282(3)
Acclamatisation of the Uneme and their Cultural Institutions to the New Environment: Changes and Continuities in Aspects of their Original Ways of Life
285(1)
Adaptation Problems in Akoko-Edo from the Late 1390s to Early 1900s
285(4)
Initial Difficulties in Adapting their Pre-Migration Cultural Institutions to their New Environment in Akoko-Edo During the Period
289(1)
Adaptation and Early Development of Their Pre-Migration Sociopolitical Culture in Akoko-Edo During the Period
290(1)
Revival and Continuation of the Structure of their Family in Akoko-Edo
291(2)
Revival and Continuation of the structure of their Quarters, Kindreds, Villages and Clans in Akoko-Edo
293(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Pre-Migration System of Age-Grades in Akoko-Edo
294(4)
Revival and Continuation of their Marriage Institution in Akoko-Edo
298(2)
Revival and Continuation of their Indigenous Names in Akoko-Edo
300(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Indigenous Religion in Akoko-Edo
301(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Indigenous Festivals in Akoko-Edo
302(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Indigenous Administrative Structure in their New Communities in Akoko-Edo
303(1)
Adaptation and Development of their Pre-Migration Techno-economic Culture in their New Communities in Akoko-Edo
303(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Iron Technology and Related Industrial Elements in Akoko-Edo
304(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Model of Iron-Working and Production Processes in Akoko-Edo
304(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Blacksmithing in Akoko-Edo
304(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Pre-Migration Method of Equipping their Blacksmithing Industries With Operational Materials in Akoko-Edo
305(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Pre-Migration Method of Forging in Akoko-Edo
306(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Pre-Migration Mode of Production of Varieties of Iron Crafts in Akoko-Edo
307(2)
Maintaining Confidentiality Concerning the Source of Success of their Iron Technology in their New Abode in Akoko-Edo
309(2)
Adaptation and Development of their Internal and External Patterns of Trade in their New Communities in Akoko-Edo
311(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Mode of Internal Trade in Akoko-Edo
311(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Mode of External Trade in Akoko-Edo
312(1)
The Example of the New Uneme Communities that Surfaced in the Etsako Central Local Government Area of the Present Northern Edo State Since about the Late 1390s and Early 1800s
313(1)
Change of Environment
314(1)
Location of the New Environment
314(1)
Environmental Conditions: The Climate and Vegetation of the Territory
315(1)
Initial Difficulties in Adjusting Themselves and their Culture to their New Environment in the Etsako Central Area
316(3)
Adaptation and Development of their Pre-Migration Sociopolitical Culture in their New Communities in the Etsako Central Area in About the Late 1390s and Early 1800s
319(1)
Revival and Continuation of the Structure of their Family, in the Etsako Central Area
320(1)
Revival and Continuation of the Structure of their Quarters, Kindreds, Villages and Clan-formations in the Etsako Central Area
321(2)
Revival and Continuation of their Age-Grades in the Etsako Central Area
323(2)
Revival and Continuation of their Marriage Institution in the Etsako Central Area
325(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Indigenous Names in the Etsako Central Area
326(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Indigenous Religion in the Etsako Central Area
327(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Indigenous Festivals in the Etsako Central Area
328(1)
Revival and Continuation of their Indigenous Administrative Structure in the Etsako Central Area
329(1)
Adaptation and Development of their Pre-Migration Techno-economic Culture in their New Communities in the Etsako Central Area in the Late 1390s and Early 1800s
330(1)
Adaptation Process Involving the New Uneme Communities and Lineages that Flourished in the Okene and Igala Areas of the Present Kogi State Since About the Late 1390s
331(2)
The Impact of Ebira Culture on the Indigenous Cultural Institutions of the Migrant Uneme Settlers in the Okene Area in the Period Indicated
333(1)
Aspects of the Uneme Cultural Institutions that Survived the Assimilatory Influences of Ebira Culture in the Okene Area During the Period
333(6)
Aspects of the Uneme Cultural Institutions Assimilated in the Okene Area
339(5)
The Impact of Igala Culture on the Indigenous Cultural Institutions of the Migrant Uneme that Settled in Igalaland During the Period
344(1)
Adaptation Process Involving the Migrant Uneme people that Settled in the Agbor, Asaba and Awka Areas of the Present Delta and Anambra States During the Period
344(1)
The Example of those that Occupied the Agbor Area
344(1)
The Example of those that Occupied the Asaba Area
345(1)
The Example of those that Occupied the Awka Area
346(2)
Notes and References
348(7)
F. CONTACT WITH EXTERNAL FORCES OF IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM (c.1440 A.D. - 1962 A.D.)
355(168)
Benin Imperialism in Akoko-Edo and Its Cultural Impact on Uneme Communities in the Area (c.1440 A.D. - 1800 A.D.)
357(16)
Introduction
357(5)
Benin's Imperialist Penetration of Akoko-Edo Before 1800
362(4)
The Effects of Benin Imperialism on the Uneme Sociopolitical Culture in Akoko-Edo Before 1800
366(1)
The Positive Impact of Benin Imperialism on the Uneme Technoeconomic Culture in Akoko-Edo During the period
366(3)
Notes and References
369(4)
Benin Imperialism in Etsako and Its Cultural Impact on Uneme Communities in the Area (c.1440 A.D. - 1800 A.D.)
373(6)
Introduction
373(1)
Benin Imperialist Penetration of Etsako Before 1800
373(1)
The Effects of Benin Imperialism on the Uneme Sociopolitical Culture in Etsako Before 1800
374(1)
The Positive Impact of Benin Imperialism on the Uneme Technoeconomic Culture in Etsako During the period
374(4)
Notes and References
378(1)
Nupe Raids and Invasion of Akoko-Edo and their Cultural Effects on Uneme Communities in the Area (1830 A.D. 1897 A.D.)
379(32)
Introduction
379(1)
Nupe Raids on Akoko-Edo in about the 1830s and 1840s
379(6)
Intensification of the Raids on Akoko-Edo in the Period from 1840 to 1849
385(4)
The Effects of the Nupe Raids of Akoko-Edo on the Uneme Cultural Institutions in the Area in the 1830s and 1840s
389(1)
The Impact on the Uneme Sociopolitical Culture During the Period
389(3)
The Impact on the Uneme Techno-economic Culture During the Period
392(1)
The Nupe Invasion of Akoko-Edo and Its Impact on Uneme Communities in the Area (1860-1897)
392(4)
The effects of the Invasion on the Uneme Sociopolitical Culture in Akoko-Edo Before 1897
396(2)
The Effects of the Invasion on the Uneme Technoeconomic Culture in Akoko-Edo Before 1897
398(4)
Notes and References
402(9)
Nupe Raids and Invasion of Etsako and their Cultural Effects on Uneme Communities in the Area (1830. A.D. - 1897 A.D.)
411(22)
Introduction
411(1)
The Raids on Uneme Oghomeze (Imiava) in the Etsako Central Area in the 1830s and 1840s.
411(1)
The Effects of Nupe Raids of Etsakoland on the Uneme Cultural Institutions in Oghomeze (Imiara) During the Period
412(3)
The Impact of the Raids on the Uneme Sociopolitical Culture in Oghomeze (Imiava) During the Period
415(1)
The Impact on the Uneme Family System in Oghomeze (Imiava) During the Period
415(1)
The Impact on the Component Uneme Quarters and Kindreds in Oghomeze (Imiava)
415(1)
The Impact on the Uneme Age-Grades in Oghomeze (Imiava)
416(1)
The Impact on the Uneme Marriage System in Oghomeze (Imiava)
416(1)
The Impact on Uneme Names in Oghomeze (Imiava)
416(1)
The Impact on the Uneme Indigenous Religion in Oghomeze (Imiava)
417(1)
The Impact on Uneme Festivals in Oghomeze (Imiava)
417(1)
The Impact on the Uneme Administrative Structure in Oghomeze (Imiava)
417(1)
The Impact of the Raids on the Uneme Technoeconomic Culture in Oghomeze (Imiava)
418(1)
The Nupe Invasion of Etsakoland and Its Impact on Uneme Communities in the Area (1860 - 1897)
419(1)
The Effects of the Nupe Invasion of Etsakoland on Uneme Communities in the Area Up to 1897
420(1)
The Impact on the Uneme Sociopolitical Culture in Etsakoland Up to 1897
420
The Consequences on the Uneme Family System in Etsakoland Up to 1897
395(25)
The Consequences on the Structures of the Uneme Quarters and Kindreds in Etsakoland Up to 1897
420(1)
The Consequences on the Uneme Age-Grades in Etsakoland Up to 1897
421(1)
The Consequences on the Uneme Marriage System in Etsakoland Up to 1897
421(1)
The Consequences on Uneme Indigenous Names in Etsakoland Up to 1897
422(1)
The Consequences on the Uneme Indigenous Religion in Etsakoland Up to 1897
423(1)
The Consequences on the Uneme Indigenous Festivals in Etsakoland Up to 1897
423(1)
The Consequences on the Uneme Indigenous Administrative Structure in Etsakoland Up to 1897
424(5)
The Impact on the Uneme Technoeconomic Cultural Institutions in Etsakoland Up to 1897
429(1)
Notes and References
429(4)
The Cultural Impact of British Colonialism on Uneme Communities in Akoko-Edo Since 1897
433(60)
Introduction
433(1)
The Effects of British Rule on the Culture of Uneme Communities in Akoko-Edo Since 1897
433(1)
The Effects on the Sociopolitical Culture of the Uneme in Akoko-Edo During the Period
434(1)
Impact on their Family System
434(2)
Effects on the Structure of their Quarters, Kindreds, Villages and Clans in Akoko-Edo
436(4)
Effects on the Uneme Age-Grades in Akoko-Edo
440(1)
Effects on Uneme Marriage System in Akoko-Edo
441(7)
Effects on Uneme Names in Akoko-Edo
448(10)
Christian Names
448(2)
European Names
450(1)
Yoruba Names
451(2)
Muslim Names
453(5)
Effects on Uneme Religion in Akoko-Edo
458(1)
Islam in Uneme Communities in Akoko-Edo Under British Rule Up to 1962
459(4)
Christianity in Uneme Communities in Akoko-Edo Under British Rule Up to 1962
463(6)
Effects on Uneme Festivals in Akoko-Edo
469(1)
The Emergence of New Festivals Associated with Christianity
470(1)
The Emergence of New Festivals Connected with Islam
470(2)
Effects on Uneme Administrative Institutions in Akoko-Edo
472(6)
Effects on the Uneme Technoeconomic Culture in Akoko-Edo
478(1)
Notes and References
479(14)
The Cultural Impact of British Colonialism on Uneme Communities in Etsako Since 1897
493(30)
Introduction
493(1)
The Effects of British Rule on the Culture of Uneme Communities in Etsakoland Since 1897
494(1)
The Effects on the Sociopolitical Culture of the Uneme in Etsako During the Period
494(1)
Impact on their Family System
494(1)
Effects on the Structure of their Quarters, Kindreds, Villages and Clan in Etsako
495(2)
Effects on the Uneme Age-Grades in Etsako
497(1)
Effects on Uneme Marriage System in Etsako
498(2)
Effects on Uneme Names in Etsako
500(1)
Effects on Uneme Religion in Etsako
501(1)
Islam Among the Uneme in Etsako Under British Rule Up to 1962
501(4)
The Growth of Christianity Among the Uneme in Etsako Under British Rule Up to 1962
505(2)
Effects on Uneme Festivals in Etsako
507(1)
The Emergence of New Festivals Associated with Islam
508(1)
The Emergence of New Festivals Connected with Christianity
509(2)
Effects on Uneme Administrative Institutions in Etsako
511(3)
Effects on the Uneme Technoeconomic Culture in Etsako During the Period
514(2)
Notes and References
516(7)
G. THE ISSUES OF ``CASTE'' PREJUDICE AGAINST THE UNEME SINCE THE ADVENT OF BRITISH RULE
523(28)
Appraisal of the Issues of Caste Prejudice Against the Uneme Since the British Colonial Era
525(26)
Introduction
525(1)
Origins and Development of the Caste Prejudice
525(1)
The Primary Cause
525(5)
The Immediate Cause
530(1)
The Role of Intra-and-Inter-Group Wars
530(3)
The Emergence of European Brands of Iron Technologies and their Impact on the Growth of the Problem
533(2)
Contemporary Distortion and Mystification of the Situation
535(2)
Inter-Marriages In Spite of the Caste Prejudice
537(1)
Examples of Non-Uneme men who Married Uneme Women From Akoko-Edo and Etsako During the Period
537(3)
Those of Royal Descent
538(1)
Those from Non-Royal families
539(1)
Examples of Uneme men who Married Non-Uneme Women From Neighbouring Communities
540(4)
Uneme men of Royal Descent who Married Non-Uneme Women
540(1)
Those from the Non-Royal Families of the Uneme
541(3)
Notes and References
544(7)
H. BIOGRAPHIES OF UNEME EMINENT PERSONALITIES
551(44)
Eminent Personalities of the Uneme up to 1962: A Focus on Oliola Ali Gadaga Ugbodaga I and Chief D.I.J. Igenuma (1908 - 1962)
553(36)
Introduction
553(1)
Oliola Ali Gadaga Ugbodaga 1
553(6)
His Contribution to the Growth and Development of Modern Southern Uneme Society (1919 -1934)
559(9)
His Descendants
568(1)
Chief D.I.J. Igenuma (1908 - 1962)
569(1)
His Early Christian-Cum-Educational Background
569(1)
His Working Experience to Voluntary Disengagement from Service in 1939
570(2)
His Engagement in Private Educational Business
572(2)
His Entry Into Politics
574(2)
His Contributions to Uneme Society in Akoko-Edo
576(2)
His Offspring
578(3)
Notes and References
581(8)
Conclusion
589(6)
Summary
589(3)
The Way Forward
592(3)
Bibliography 595(22)
Index 617

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