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Michelle "Lani" Shiota is Associate Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. Her work has been published in high-impact journals including Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychologist, and Emotion.
James Kalat is Professor Emeritus at North Carolina State University. He is the best-selling author of Introduction to Psychology (2017) and Biological Psychology (2016).
Table of Contents
Chapter 15. Emotion Regulation
Each chapter ends with a Summary, Key Terms, Thought/Discussion Questions, and Suggestions for Further Reading.
PART 1. WHAT ARE EMOTIONS, AND WHY DO WE HAVE THEM?
Chapter 1. The Nature of Emotion
What Is Emotion?
An Attempt to Define Emotion
A Different Type of Definition: The Prototype Approach
Classic Theories of Emotion
Modern Theories of Emotion
Core Affect and Psychological Construction
The Component Process Model
Which Modern Theory Is Right?
Research Methods: How Do We Study Emotion?
Do Different Aspects of Emotion Hang Together?
Chapter 2. The Evolution of Emotion
What Is an Evolutionary Perspective?
Basic Principles of Evolutionary Theory
Emotions as Adaptations
Functions of Emotion
Intrapersonal Functions of Emotion
Social Functions of Emotion
Role of Evolution in Modern Theories of Emotion
The Signal Value of Emotional Feelings
Approach and Avoidance Motivation
Emotions as Superordinate Neural Programs
A Phylogeny of Emotions?
Example: Are Physiological Aspects of Emotion Universal?
Chapter 3. Culture and Emotion
What Is Culture?
A Definition and Its Implications
Cultural Differences in Concepts of Emotion
Do All Cultures Have the Same "Basic" Emotions?
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Hyper- Versus Hypocognized Emotions
Aspects of Culture That Predict Differences in Emotion
Individualism Versus Collectivism
Power Distance: Vertical Versus Horizontal Societies
Linear Versus Dialectical Epistemology
Example: Culture of Honor and Implications for Anger
Integrating Evolutionary and Cultural Approaches
Ekman (1972): Neurocultural Theory of Emotion
Russell (1991): Emotion Episodes as Socially Constructed Scripts
Keltner & Haidt (1999): Levels of Analysis
Chapter 4. What Elicits Emotions?
What Is Appraisal?
The Speed of Emotional Appraisals
What Is the Content of Appraisal?
Core Relational Themes
Which Approach Is Correct?
Evidence Linking Appraisal to Emotion
Does Appraisal Cause Emotion?
Universals and Cultural Differences in Emotional Appraisals
Is Appraisal Necessary for Emotion?
The Mere Exposure Effect
Example: What Elicits Anger?
Core Relational Theme Approach
Appraisal Dimension Approach
No-Cognition Approach: The Cognitive Neoassociationistic Model
Chapter 5. Emotional Expression in the Face, Posture, and Voice
Historical Importance of Facial Expression Research
Are Facial Expressions of Emotion Universal?
Ekman's Cross-cultural Studies
How Many Expressions Are There?
Culture and Emotional Expression
Cultural Display Rules
Facial Expression Dialects
Emotion in Posture and the Voice
Posture and Emotion
Vocal Expression of Emotion
Can Expression Influence Emotional Feelings?
PART 2. HOW DO EMOTIONS AFFECT OUR LIVES? CHAPTER 6
Chapter 6. Emotion and the Central Nervous System
Methods to Study Emotion and the Brain
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
The Reverse Inference Problem
The Amygdala and Emotion
Effects of Amygdala Damage
Laboratory Studies of Fear Conditioning
Events That Activate the Human Amygdala
The Amygdala and Emotional Memory
Emotion Neuroanatomy: Important Structures
The Nucleus Accumbens and Ventral Tegmental Area
The Insular Cortex
The Prefrontal Cortex
Emotion Neurochemistry: Important Neurotransmitters
B-Endorphin and the Opioid Peptides
Theories of Emotion: Evidence from Neuroscience
Chapter 7. The Autonomic Nervous System and Hormones
The Autonomic Nervous System
Fight or Flight: The Sympathetic Nervous System
Rest and Digest: The Parasympathetic Nervous System
How the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems Work Together
Hormones and the Endocrine System
Measuring Physiological Aspects of Emotion
Commonly Used Measures
The Autonomic Nervous System and Emotion
Are Bodily Sensations Necessary for Emotional Feelings?
Autonomic Nervous System Specificity of Emotions
Culture and Emotion Physiology
Physiological Aspects of Positive Emotions
Stress and Its Health Consequences
Hans Selye and the Concept of Stress
Defining and Measuring Stress
How Stress Can Affect Health
Chapter 8. Emotional Development
Emotional Reactions in Infancy
Smiling and Laughing
Responses to Danger
When Do Specific Emotions Emerge?
How Do Emotions Develop?
Development of Emotional Communication: Perceiving, Sharing, and Talking About Emotions
Interpreting Facial Expressions of Emotion
Socialization of Emotional Expression
Emotion in Adolescence
Emotional Development in Adulthood
Individual Consistency Across the Lifespan
Age Trends in Emotion
Chapter 9. Emotion in Relationships and Society
Early Emotional Bonds: Infant Attachment
What Is the Function of Attachment?
Behavioral and Biological Mechanisms of Attachment
Types of Attachment: Secure, Anxious-Ambivalent, and Avoidant
Romantic Love and Marriage
Romantic Attraction and Falling in Love
Attachment in Adult Romantic Relationships
Marriage: Predicting Satisfaction and Stability
Emotions in Caring for Others
Sympathy, Compassion, and Nurturant Love
Emotions in Society
Attachment Processes in Friendships and Groups
Gratitude: Find, Remind, and Bind
The Appeasement Function of Embarrassment
Pride and Social Status
Chapter 10. Emotion and Cognition
Emotions and Attention
Emotions and Memory
Emotion and Memory Encoding
Emotion and Consolidation
Emotion and Retrieval
Emotions and Information Processing
Systematic Versus Heuristic Processing
Mood and Systematic Versus Heuristic Cognition
Are Depressed People More Realistic?
Positive Affect and Creativity
Emotions and Decision Making
The Somatic Marker Hypothesis
Choices Based on Preferences and Values
Emotions and Moral Reasoning
The Downside of Relying on Emotions
PART 3. HOW CAN WE IMPROVE EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING
Chapter 11. The Value of Negative Emotions
The Value of Fear
The Biology of Fear and Anxiety
Individual Differences: Gender and Genetics
The Value of Anger
The Biology of Anger and Aggression
Individual Differences: Expression and Management
The Biology of Disgust
Individual Differences: Development and Implications
The Value of Sadness
The Biology of Sadness
Individual Differences: Aging and Loss
Embarrassment, Shame, and Guilt
The Value of Self-Conscious Negative Emotions
The Biology of Embarrassment
Individual Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions
Chapter 12. Happiness and the Positive Emotions
Is Happiness an Emotion?
Measuring Subjective Well-Being
What Predicts Happiness?
Personality: The Top-Down Theory of Happiness
Life Events That Impact Happiness
Wealth and Happiness
Other Correlates of Happiness
The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotion
Are There Multiple Positive Emotions?
Enthusiasm: The Anticipation of Reward
Amusement and Humor
Hope and Optimism
Chapter 13. Individual Differences in Emotion
Gender and Emotion
Gender Differences in Emotional Experience and Expression
Gender and Emotion Regulation
Gender and Empathy
Personality and Emotion
Biological Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Emotion
Frontal Lobe Activation Asymmetry
Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism
Measuring Emotional Intelligence
Reliability and Validity of Emotional Intelligence Tests
Can Emotional Intelligence Be Taught?
Chapter 14. Emotion in Clinical Psychology
Diagnosis in Clinical Psychology
Major Depressive Disorder
Multiple Types of Depression?
Causes of Depression
Mania and Bipolar Disorder
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
Treating Anxiety Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Emotional Disturbances as Transdiagnostic Aspects of Disorder
Chapter 15. Emotion Regulation
Freud's Ego Defense Mechanisms: An Early Taxonomy of Coping Strategies
The Process Model of Emotion Regulation
Choosing Situations Wisely
Active Coping: Changing the Situation
Different Types of Reappraisal
Escaping Emotions: Drugs, Alcohol, and Food
Suppressing Emotional Expression
Catharsis: Expressing Your Feelings
The Neurobiology of Emotion Regulation
Which Emotion Regulation Strategies Are Best?
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