Essentials of Working Memory Assessment and Intervention

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Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2015-08-31
Publisher(s): Wiley
List Price: $61.95

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Improve academic learning outcomes with accurate working memory assessment and evidence-based interventions

Essentials of Working Memory Assessment and Intervention is an accessible, practical guide to accurately and efficiently assessing working memory. This comprehensive resource explains the theories of working memory, with an emphasis on cognitive load theory, and provides step-by-step guidelines for organizing a cross-battery assessment, selecting appropriate instruments, interpreting results, and formulating individualized interventions and educational programming. In-depth case studies illustrate typical profiles found in children and adolescents with working memory deficits, and the companion CD features worksheets, testing charts, and other useful resources. Reader-friendly design elements including Rapid Reference, Caution, and Don't Forget boxes, and practice questions, bullet points, and icons make this guide useful for both study and desk reference.

Working memory deficits are the main reason why students with disabilities are unable to successfully respond to regular education interventions. Given the strong relationship between working memory and all areas of academic learning, a deeper understanding of working memory and the related assessments and interventions can facilitate greater achievement. This book helps readers:

  • Understand the development and neuroanatomy of working memory
  • Learn techniques for improving working memory in the classroom
  • Examine strategies for brain-based working memory training
  • Effectively utilize working memory assessment measures

By examining the critical functions of working memory and its relationship with specific learning disabilities, then providing strategies for assessment and detailed intervention guidance, this book helps educatorsand professionals guide their students and clients toward improved cognitive functioning, , reduced frustration, and improved academic performance . For those seeking a practical approach to working memory, Essentials of Working Memory Assessment and Intervention provides the tools and information they need.

Author Biography

MILTON J. DEHN, Ed.D., NCSP, is the cofounder and program director of Schoolhouse Tutoring® and a former practicing school psychologist, associate professor, and director of a graduate training program in school psychology. He is the author of Working Memory and Academic Learning, Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents, and Essentials of Processing Assessment, Second Edition all from Wiley.

Table of Contents

Series Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

One Working Memory Models 1

Working Memory’s Influence 2

Baddeley’s Working Memory Model 3

Other Models of Working Memory 7

The Controversy Regarding Working Memory Capacity 12

Retention Intervals 15

Cognitive LoadTheory 15

The Integrated Model of Working Memory 16

Two Cognitive Processes Highly Related With Working Memory 25

General Intelligence 26

Fluid Reasoning 28

The Big Three 30

Executive Functions 30

Attention 31

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 32

Oral Language 34

Auditory Processing 35

Phonological Processing 35

Processing Speed 36

Visual-Spatial Processing 37

Sequential Processing 37

Long-Term Memory 38

Metamemory 42

Strategies 43

Three Development, Neuroanatomy, and Risk Factors 45

Development of Working Memory 45

Metamemory Development 50

Long-Term Memory Development 51

The Neuroanatomy of Working Memory 51

The Neuroanatomy of Long-Term Memory 56

Risk Factors for Working Memory Impairments 58

Four Working Memory’s Influence on Academic Learning and Performance 64

Working Memory and Classroom Learning 65

Cognitive Load in the Classroom 66

Working Memory and Basic Reading Skills 69

Working Memory and Reading Comprehension 72

Working Memory and Mathematics 75

Working Memory and Written Expression 81

Working Memory and Oral Language 82

Working Memory and Scholastic Performance 84

Working Memory and LD 85

The Importance of Automaticity 89

Implications for Assessment 90

Conclusions 91

Five Assessment Strategies 95

How to Determine Which Working Memory Component a Subtest Measures 96

Informal Assessment Procedures 102

Assessing Interaction With Long-Term Memory 114

Working Memory Testing 116

Testing Related Cognitive Processes 122

Analyzing Test Results 122

Interpretation of Working Memory Assessment Data 132

Specific Learning Disability Determination 137

Memory Processes Analyzer 138

Six Psychological ScalesThat Measure Working Memory 141

Child and Adolescent Memory Profile (CHAMP) 143

Cognitive Assessment System, Second Edition (CAS-II) 143

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP2) 145

Differential Ability Scales–Second Edition (DAS-II) 146

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children–Second Edition (KABC-II) 148

The NEPSY II 149

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales–Fifth Edition (SB5) 151

Test of Auditory Processing Skills,Third Edition (TAPS-3) 152

Test of Memory and Learning–Second Edition (TOMAL-2) 153

The Wechsler Intelligence Scales 155

WISC-IV Integrated 158

WechslerMemory Scale, Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) 159

Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning–Second Edition (WRAML2) 161

Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV ACH) 163

Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV COG) 163

Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Oral Language (WJ IV OL) 165

Seven Working Memory Interventions That Change the Brain 168

Types of Working Memory Interventions 169

Selecting Working Memory Exercises and Strategies 169

Measuring Progress 175

Metamemory Training 177

The Efficacy of Working Memory Training 177

How Working Memory Training Changes the Brain 181

Conclusions Regarding the Efficacy of Working Memory Training 183

Internet-Based Working Memory Training 184

Hands-On Working Memory Exercises 188

Interventions That Improve Related Cognitive Processes 192

Eight Supporting Working Memory in the Classroom 197

The Mnemonic-Based Classroom 198

Metamemory Instruction 200

Instruction That Reduces Cognitive Load 201

Accommodations and Modifications for Specific Academic Subjects 205

General Accommodations 208

Instructional Practices That Support Working Memory 209

Teaching Working Memory Strategies 213

Bypassing Working Memory by Using LTM Strategies 222

Nine Case Study 225

Working Memory Interpretation Section 225

Case Study Assessment 227

Example of a Written Interpretation 236

Jon’s Interventions 241

Appendix A Scaled Score to Standard Score Conversion Table With Percentiles 253

Appendix B T-Score to Standard Score Conversion Table 256

Appendix C Working Memory Composites and Subtests Sorted by Scale 259

Annotated Bibliography 266

References 269

About the Author 303

About the Online Resources 304

Index 307

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