Experience Human Development

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Edition: 12th
Format: Hardcover
Pub. Date: 2011-10-04
Publisher(s): McGraw-Hill Education
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Experience Human Development 12eallows you to: Experience a program that connects students to the real world. Our Milestones video program allows students to witness real life as it unfolds via a customizeable, assignable and assessible platform. Additionally, our new Research in Action feature highlights interesting and timely topics. Experience the diversity of the human experience.The 12th edition of this classic best-seller retains the extensive and integrated cross-cultural and multicultural coverage as previous editions. Experience a program that helps students navigate the vast amount of material in the course.Now with Connect Lifespan, Papalia 12e allows students to connect with real life and the real world. Connect Psychology with LearnSmart, our adaptive learning system, is designed to help students learn faster, study more efficiently, and retain more knowledge for greater success. And, it allows faculty to spend more time teaching and less time grading.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 The Study of Human Development 

Human Development: An Ever-Evolving Field 

Studying the Life Span 

Human Development Today 

The Study of Human Development: Basic Concepts 

Domains of Development 

Periods of the Life Span 

Influences on Development 

Heredity, Environment, and Maturation  

Contexts of Development  

Normative and Nonnormative Influences  

Timing of Influences: Critical or Sensitive Periods

Paul B. Baltes's Life-Span Developmental Approach  

CHAPTER 2 Theory and Research 

Basic Theoretical Issues 

Issue 1: Is Development Active or Reactive? 

Issue 2: Is Development Continuous or Discontinuous? 

Theoretical Perspectives 

Perspective 1: Psychoanalytic 

Perspective 2: Learning 

Perspective 3: Cognitive 

Perspective 4: Contextual 

Perspective 5: Evolutionary/Sociobiological 

A Shifting Balance 

Research Methods 


Forms of Data Collection 

Basic Research Designs

Developmental Research Designs 

CHAPTER 3 Forming a New Life 

Conceiving New Life 

How Fertilization Takes Place 

What Causes Multiple Births? 

Mechanisms of Heredity 

The Genetic Code

What Determines Sex? 

Patterns of Genetic Transmission 

Genetic and Chromosomal Abnormalities 

Genetic Counseling and Testing 

Nature and Nurture: Influences of Heredity and Environment 

Studying Heredity and Environment 

How Heredity and Environment Work Together 

Some Characteristics Influenced by Heredity and Environment Prenatal Development 

Stages of Prenatal Development 

Environmental Influences: Maternal Factors 

Environmental Influences: Paternal Factors 

Monitoring and Promoting Prenatal Development 

Disparities in Prenatal Care 

The Need for Preconception Care 

CHAPTER 4 Birth and Physical Development during the First Three Years 

Childbirth and Culture: How Birthing Has Changed 

The Birth Process 

Stages of Childbirth 

Electronic Fetal Monitoring 

Vaginal versus Cesarean Delivery 

Medicated versus Nonmedicated Delivery 

The Newborn Baby 

Size and Appearance 

Body Systems 

Medical and Behavioral Assessment 

States of Arousal 

Complications of Childbirth 

Low Birth Weight 



Can a Supportive Environment Overcome Effects of

Birth Complications? 

Survival and Health 

Death during Infancy 

Immunization for Better Health 

Early Physical Development  

Principles of Development 

Patterns of Growth 


The Brain and Reflex Behavior 

Early Sensory Capacities 

Motor Development 

Milestones of Motor Development 

Motor Development and Perception 

Eleanor and James Gibson’s Ecological Theory 

How Motor Development Occurs: Thelan’s Dynamic Systems Theory 

Cultural Influences on Motor Development  

CHAPTER 5 Cognitive Development during the First Three Years 

Studying Cognitive Development: Six Approaches 

Behaviorist Approach: Basic Mechanics of Learning Classical and Operant Conditioning  

Infant Memory 

Psychometric Approach: Developmental and

Intelligence Testing 

Testing Infants and Toddlers 

Assessing the Impact of the Early Home Environment 

Early Intervention 

Piagetian Approach: The Sensorimotor Stage 

Substages of the Sensorimotor Stage 

Do Imitative Abilities Develop Earlier than Piaget Thought? 

Development of Knowledge about Objects and Space 

Evaluating Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage 

Information-Processing Approach: Perceptions and Representations 


Visual and Auditory Processing Abilities 

Information Processing as a Predictor of Intelligence 

Information Processing and the Development of

Piagetian Abilities 

Cognitive Neuroscience Approach: The Brain's

Cognitive Structures 

Memory Systems 

Understanding of Number 

Social-Contextual Approach: Learning Form Interactions with Caregivers 

Language Development 

Sequence of Early Language Development 

Characteristics of Early Speech 

Classic Theories of Language Acquisition:

The Nature-Nurture Debate 

Influences on Early Language Development 

Preparing for Literacy: The Benefits of Reading Aloud 

CHAPTER 6 Psychosocial Development during the First Three Years 

Foundations of Psychosocial Development Emotions 


Earliest Social Experiences: The Infant in the Family 

Gender: How Different Are Baby Boys and Girls? 

Developmental Issues in Infancy 

Developing Trust 

Developing Attachments 

Emotional Communication with Caregivers: Mutual Regulation 

Social Referencing 

Developmental Issues in Toddlerhood 

The Emerging Sense of Self 

Development of Autonomy 

The Roots of Moral Development: Socialisation and Internalisation 

Contact with Other Children 


Sociability with Nonsiblings 

Children of Working Parents 

Effects of Maternal Employment 

Early Child Care 

Maltreatment: Child Abuse and Neglect 

Maltreatment: Facts and Figures 

Contributing Factors: An Ecological View 

Helping Families in Trouble 

Long-Term Effects of Maltreatment 

CHAPTER 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood 


Aspects of Physical Development 

Bodily Growth and Change 

Sleep Patterns and Problems 

Brain Development 

Motor Skills 

Health and Safety 

Preventing Obesity 


Deaths and Accidental Injuries 

Health in Context: Environmental Influences 


Piagetian Approach: the Preoperational Child 

Advances of Preoperational Thought 

Immature Aspects of Preoperational Thought 

Do Young Children Have Theories of Mind? 

Information-Processing Approach: Memory Development 

Basic Processes and Capacities 

Recognition and Recall 

Forming and Retaining Childhood Memories 

Intelligence: Psychometric and Vygotskian Approaches 

Traditional Psychometric Measures 

Influences on Measured Intelligence 

Testing and Teaching Based on Vygotsky's Theory 

Language Development 


Grammar and Syntax 

Pragmatics and Social Speech 

Private Speech 

Delayed Language Development 

Preparation for Literacy 

Early Childhood Education 

Goals and Types of Preschools 

Compensatory Preschool Programs 

The Child in Kindergarten 

CHAPTER 8 Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood 

The Developing Self 

The Self-Concept and Cognitive Development 


Understanding and Regulating Emotions 

Erikson: Initiative versus Guilt 


Gender Differences 

Perspectives on Gender Development 

Play: The Business of Early Childhood 

Cognitive Levels of Play 

The Social Dimension of Play 

How Gender Influences Play 

How Culture Influences Play 


Forms of Discipline 

Parenting Styles 

Special Behavioral Concerns 

Relationships with Other Children 

Sibling Relationships 

The Only Child 

Playmates and Friends 

CHAPTER 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood 


Aspects of Physical Development 

Height and Weight 

Nutrition and Sleep 

Brain Development 

Motor Development and Physical Play 

Health, Fitness, and Safety 

Obesity and Body Image 

Other Medical Conditions 

Accidental Injuries 


Piagetian Approach: The Concrete Operational Child 

Cognitive Advances 

Influences of Neurological Development, Culture, and Schooling 

Moral Reasoning 

Information-Processing Approach: Planning, Attention, and Memory 

How Do Executive Skills Develop? 

Selective Attention 

Working Memory Span 

Metamemory: Understanding Memory 

Mnemonics: Strategies for Remembering 

Information Processing and Piagetian Tasks 

Psychometric Approach: Assessment of Intelligence 

The IQ Controversy 

Influences on Intelligence 

Is There More Than One Intelligence? 

Other Directions in Intelligence Testing 


Vocabulary, Grammar, and Syntax 

Pragmatics: Knowledge about Communication 

Second-Language Learning 

The Child In School 

Entering First Grade 

Becoming Literate 

Influences on School Achievement 

Educating Children with Special Needs 

Children with Learning Problems 

Gifted Children 

CHAPTER 10 Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood

The Developing Self 

Self-Concept Development: Representational Systems 


Emotional Growth and Prosocial Behavior 

The Child in the Family 

Family Atmosphere 

Family Structure 

Sibling Relationships 

The Child in the Peer Group 

Positive and Negative Effects of Peer Relations 



Aggression and Bullying 

Mental Health 

Common Emotional Disturbances 

Treatment Techniques 

Stress and Resilience 

CHAPTER 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 

Adolescence: A Developmental Transition 

Adolescence as a Social Construction 

Adolescence: A Time of Opportunities and Risks 



How Puberty Begins: Hormonal Changes 

Timing, Signs, and Sequence of Puberty and

Sexual Maturity 

The Adolescent Brain 

Physical and Mental Health 

Physical Activity 

Sleep Needs and Problems 

Nutrition and Eating Disorders 

Use and Abuse of Drugs 


Death in Adolescence 


Aspects of Cognitive Maturation 

Piaget's Stage of Formal Operations 

Changes in Information Processing 

Language Development 

Moral Reasoning: Kohlberg's Theory 

An Ethic of Care: Gilligan's Theory 

Prosocial Behavior and Volunteer Activity 

Educational and Vocational Issues 

Influences on School Achievement 

Dropping Out of High School 

Preparing for Higher Educational or Vocations 

CHAPTER 12 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence 

The Search for Identity 

Erikson: Identity versus Identity Confusion 

Marcia: Identity Status—Crisis and Commitment 

Gender Differences in Identity Formation 

Ethnic Factors in Identity Formation 


Sexual Orientation and Identity 

Sexual Behavior 

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) 

Teenage Pregnancy and Childbearing 

Relationships with Family, Peers, and Adult Society 

Is Adolescent Rebellion a Myth? 

Changing Time Use and Changing Relationships 

Adolescents and Parents 

Adolescents and Siblings 

Adolescents and Peers 

Antisocial Behavior and Juvenile Delinquency 

Becoming a Delinquent: Genetic and

Neurological Factors 

Becoming a Delinquent: How Family, Peer, and

Community Influences Interact 

Long-Term Prospects 

Preventing and Treating Delinquency 

CHAPTER 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood 

Emerging Adulthood 


Health and Fitness 

Health Status and Health Issues 

Genetic Influences on Health 

Behavioral Influences on Health and Fitness 

Indirect Influences on Health and Fitness 

Mental Health Problems 

Sexual and Reproductive Issues 

Sexual Behavior and Attitudes 

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) 

Menstrual Disorders 



Perspectives on Adult Cognition 

Beyond Piaget: New Ways of Thinking in Adulthood 

Schaie: A Life-Span Model of Cognitive


Sternberg: Insight and Know-How 

Emotional Intelligence 

Moral Reasoning 

Culture and Moral Reasoning 

Gender and Moral Reasoning 

Education and Work 

The College Transition 

Entering the World of Work  

CHAPTER 14 Psychosocial Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood 

Emerging Adulthood: Patterns and Tasks 

Varied Paths to Adulthood 

Identity Development in Emerging Adulthood 

Developing Adult Relationships with Parents 

Personality Development: Four Views 

Normative-Stage Models 

Timing-of-Events Model 

Trait Models: Costa and McCrae's Five Factors 

Typological Models 

Foundations of Intimate Relationships 



Marital and Nonmarital Lifestyles 

Single Life 

Gay and Lesbian Relationships 




Parenthood as a Developmental Experience 

How Dual-Income Families Cope 

When Marriage Ends 


Remarriage and Stepparenthood  

CHAPTER 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood 

Middle Age: A Social Construct 


Physical Changes 

Sensory and Psychomotor Functioning 

Structural and Systemic Changes 

Sexuality and Reproductive Functioning 

Physical and Mental Health 

Health Trends at Midlife 

Behavioral Influences on Health 

Socioeconomic Status and Health 

Race/Ethnicity and Health 

Gender and Health 

Stress in Middle Age 

Emotions and Health 

Mental Health 


Measuring Cognitive Abilities in Middle Age 

Schaie: The Seattle Longitudinal Study 

Horn and Cattell: Fluid and Crystallised Intelligence 

The Distinctiveness of Adult Cognition 

The Role of Expertise 

Integrative Thought 


Characteristics of Creative Achievers 

Creativity and Age 

Work and Education 

Work versus Early Retirement 

Work and Cognitive Development 

The Mature Learner 

CHAPTER 16 Psychosocial Development in Middle Adulthood

Looking at the Life Course in Middle Age 

Change at Midlife: Theoretical Approaches 

Trait Models 

Normative-Stage Models 

Timing of Events: The Social Clock 

The Self at Midlife: Issues and Themes 

Is There a Midlife Crisis? 

Identity Development 

Psychological Well-Being and Positive Mental Health 

Relationships at Midlife 

Theories of Social Contact 

Relationships, Gender, and Quality of Life 

Consensual Relationships 




Marital Status, Well-Being, and Health 

Gay and Lesbian Relationships 


Relationships with Maturing Children 

Adolescent Children: Issues for Parents 

When Children Leave: The Empty Nest 

Parenting Grown Children 

Prolonged Parenting: The “Cluttered Nest” 

Other Kinship Ties 

Relationships with Aging Parents 

Relationships with Siblings 


CHAPTER 17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood 

Old Age Today 

The Graying of the Population 

Young Old to Oldest Old 


Longevity and Aging 

Trends and Factors in Life Expectancy 

Why People Age 

How Far Can the Life Span Be Extended? 

Physical Changes 

Organic and Systemic Changes 

The Aging Brain 

Sensory and Psychomotor Functioning 


Sexual Functioning 

Physical and Mental Health 

Health Status 

Chronic Conditions and Disabilities 

Lifestyle Influences on Health and Longevity 

Mental and Behavioral Problems 


Aspects of Cognitive Development 

Intelligence and Processing Abilities 

Memory: How Does It Change? 


CHAPTER 18 Psychosocial Development in Late Adulthood 

Theory and Research on Personality Development 

Erik Erikson: Normative Issues and Tasks 

The Five-Factor Model: Personality Traits in Old Age 

Well-Being in Late Adulthood 

Coping and Mental Health 

Models of “Successful,” or “Optimal”,“Aging” 

Practical and Social Issues Related to Aging 

Work and Retirement 

How Do Older Adults Fare Financially? 

Living Arrangements 

Personal Relationships in Late Life 

Theories of Social Contact and Social Support 

The Importance of Social Relationships 

The Multigenerational Family 

Marital Relationships 

Long-Term Marriage 


Divorce and Remarriage 

Nonmarital Lifestyles and Relationships 

Single Life 


Gay and Lesbian Relationships 


Nonmarital Kinship Ties 

Relationships with Adult Children 

Relationships with Siblings 

Becoming Great-Grandparents  

CHAPTER 19 Dealing with Death and Bereavement 

The Many, Changing Meanings of Death and Dying 

The Cultural Context 

The Mortality Revolution 

Care of the Dying 

Facing Death and Loss 

Physical and Cognitive Changes Preceding Death 

Confronting One&'s Own Death 

Patterns of Grieving 

Attitudes about Death and Dying across the Life Span 

Significant Losses 

Surviving a Spouse 

Losing a Parent in Adulthood 

Losing a Child 

Mourning a Miscarriage 

Medical, Legal, and Ethical Issues: The 'Right to Die” 


Hastening Death 

Finding Meaning and Purpose in Life and Death 

Reviewing a Life 

Development: A Lifelong Process 

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