First Islanders Prehistory and Human Migration in Island Southeast Asia

Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2017-04-10
Publisher(s): Wiley-Blackwell
List Price: $53.28

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Incorporating research findings over the last twenty years, First Islanders examines the human prehistory of Island Southeast Asia. This fascinating story is explored from a broad swathe of multidisciplinary perspectives and pays close attention to migration in the period dating from 1.5 million years ago to the development of Indic kingdoms late in the first millennium CE. 

Author Biography

Peter Bellwood is an Emeritus Professor at the Australian National University, which he joined in 1973, retiring in 2013. He has undertaken archaeological research in Polynesia and Island Southeast Asia and is currently involved in projects in Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines. His most recent books include The Global Prehistory of Human Migration (edited, Wiley Blackwell, 2015), First Migrants (Wiley Blackwell, 2013), Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago (3rd edition, 2007), First Farmers (Wiley Blackwell, 2005), and Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History (co-edited, 2005). Peter Bellwood is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities and a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy.

Table of Contents

Contents vii

List of Figures and Plates xii

Invited Contributors xv

Acknowledgments xvi

1 Introducing First Islanders 1

This Book 3

A Note on Dating Terminology 7

A Note on Archaeological Terminology 7

Pronunciation and Place]names 9

Notes 9

References 10

2 Island Southeast Asia as a Canvas for Human Migration 11

The Shelves and Basins 12

Sundaland 15

Wallacea 15

Sahul 16

The Island Southeast Asian Environment 16

Climate 16

Landforms and Soils 18

The Floras of Island Southeast Asia 20

Faunal and Biogeographical Boundaries 21

The Cyclical Changes of the Pleistocene 22

The Pleistocene Epoch: Definition and Chronology 22

The Cycles of Glacials and Interglacials 23

World Sea Level Changes During the Pleistocene 23

The Consequences of Mid]latitude Glaciation 27

Notes 30

References 30

3 Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis: Archaic Hominins in Island Southeast Asia 34

Hominin Antecedents in Africa and Asia 35

Homo erectus in Java 38

Java – Pleistocene Mammals and Stratigraphy 39

Sangiran 41

Ngandong 43

When Did Hominins Arrive in Java? 44

The Evolution of Javan Homo erectus 46

An Invited Perspective by Colin Groves 46

The Dating of the Javan Hominins 47

The Homo erectus Cranium 49

The Homo erectus Mandible 50

Homo erectus Teeth 50

Homo erectus Postcranial Material 51

Evolution within Javan Homo erectus 52

The Philippines, Sulawesi, and Nusa Tenggara: Pleistocene Mammals

and Stratigraphy 53

The Philippines 54

Sulawesi 54

Flores and Nusa Tenggara 55

Homo floresiensis (and Homo erectus?) in Flores 58

The Enigma of Homo floresiensis 60

An Invited Perspective by Debbie Argue 60

The Homo floresiensis Controversy 62

Was Homo floresiensis a Dwarfed Homo erectus? 64

Was Homo floresiensis Descended from a Separate

Early Hominin Lineage? 64

Cultural Evidence Related to Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis 65

Java and the Tools of Homo erectus 67

Flores and the Tools of Homo floresiensis 71

Retrospect 74

Notes 75

References 76

4 The Biological History of Homo sapiens in Island Southeast Asia 86

The First Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia 89

Early to Middle Holocene Skeletal Data from Island Southeast Asia 93

The Biological Arrival of an Asian Neolithic Population in Island

Southeast Asia 94

The Significance of Skin Pigmentation in Equatorial Latitudes 97

The Biological History of Southeast Asian Populations from

Late Pleistocene and Holocene Cemetery Data 98

An Invited Perspective by Hirofumi Matsumura, Marc Oxenham,

Truman Simanjuntak, and Mariko Yamagata 98

Craniometric Analysis 99

Early Indigenous Hunter]gatherers 99

Neolithic Dispersal in Mainland Southeast Asia 103

Neolithic Dispersal in Island Southeast Asia 104

Conclusions 106

The Genetic History of Human Populations in Island Southeast

Asia During the Late Pleistocene and Holocene 107

An Invited Perspective by Murray Cox 107

The Population History of Island Southeast Asia 117

Notes 119

References 120

5 Late Paleolithic Archaeology in Island Southeast Asia 131

Mainland Southeast Asia, Peninsular Malaysia, and Sumatra: The Hoabinhian and Its Successors 134

Hoabinhian into Para]Neolithic in Mainland Southeast Asia 134

The Hoabinhian of Sumatra 138

Beyond Sumatra – the Late Palaeolithic in the Islands of Southeast Asia 139

The Niah Caves, Sarawak 141

Eastern Sabah 143

Eastern and Central Kalimantan 147

Java 150

The Philippines 151

Sulawesi and the Talaud Islands 153

The Toalian of South Sulawesi – a Localized Revolution in Small Tool Technology 155

The Northern Moluccas 159

Eastern Nusa Tenggara and Timor]Leste 162

Changing Patterns in Hunting Across Island Southeast Asia Before the Neolithic 165

An Invited Perspective by Philip J. Piper 165

The Late Pleistocene (45–14 kya) 165

Terminal Pleistocene to Mid]Holocene (14–4.5 kya) 167

Some Final Thoughts on Homo sapiens and the Late Palaeolithic in Island Southeast Asia 170

Notes 171

References 172

6 The Early History of the Austronesian Language Family in Island Southeast Asia 181

What is a Language Family, and Why are Language Families Important? 185

An Introduction to Austronesian Linguistic History 187

The Linguistic History of Austronesian]speaking Communitiesin Island Southeast Asia 190

An Invited Perspective by Robert Blust 190

Further Questions of Austronesian Linguistic History 197

Before Taiwan: The Antecedents of Proto]Austronesian 197

How Did the Austronesian Languages Spread Initially throughout

Island Southeast Asia? 200

Directionality and Relative Chronology in the Early Austronesian Migration Process 201

The Material Culture and Economy of the Early Austronesians 204

The Austronesian Diaspora: A Perspective from Indonesia 207

An Invited Perspective by Daud Aris Tanudirjo 207

A Brief History of Austronesian Studies in Indonesia 208

Austronesian Languages and National Identity 210

Notes 211

References 212

7 Neolithic Farmers and Sailors in Southern China, Taiwan, and the Philippines 218

The Origins of Rice Production in China 220

The Evolution of Neolithic Societies in China 226

Neolithic Movement into Southern China 228

The Out of Taiwan Hypothesis for Austronesian

Dispersal into Island Southeast Asia 231

Neolithic Cultures in Southeast China, Taiwan, and Luzon 232

An Invited Perspective by Hsiao]chun Hung 232

Taiwan 234

Between Taiwan and Luzon 236

Ludao and Lanyu (Botel Tobago) 237

The Batanes Islands 237

Northern Luzon 239

Coastal Palaeo]landscapes of the Neolithic 240

An Invited Perspective by Mike T. Carson 240

Further Observations on Neolithic Cultures in Taiwan 244

The Neolithic of the Philippines 248

The Batanes Islands 250

The Cagayan Valley of Luzon 253

The Philippines beyond Cagayan 255

Southern China, Taiwan, and the Philippines – a Neolithic Assessment 256

Notes 257

References 259

8 The Neolithic of East Malaysia and Indonesia 267

The Western Neolithic Stream – Sarawak and Onwards 269

Java and Sumatra 274

The Eastern Neolithic Stream: Eastern Borneo, Sulawesi, and the Moluccas 276

Sabah: Bukit Tengkorak 281

Sulawesi 283

Fleshing Out the Neolithic Prehistory of Island Southeast Asia 287

Neolithic Food Production 288

Potential Phases of Neolithic Crop Production in Island Southeast Asia 289

Rice in Island Southeast Asian Prehistory, and Its Fading from Grace 293

Farmers Who Adopted Rainforest Hunting and Gathering 294

Domesticated Animals in the Island Southeast Asian Neolithic 297

An Invited Perspective by Philip J. Piper 297

Pigs and Dogs 297

Chickens 299

Bovidae 300

Domestic Animals in Cultural Context 300

Neolithic Fishing 301

Neolithic Translocations 301

Summing Up the Island Southeast Asian Neolithic 302

Notes 303

References 304

9 The Early Metal Age and Intercultural Connections in Island Southeast Asia 312

The Arrival of Metallurgy in Island Southeast Asia 314

“Indigenous” Early Metal Age Assemblages and Monuments in Island

Southeast Asia 320

Stone Monuments and Carvings: Indonesia 320

Malayic Migration 324

Burial Grounds and Their Significance 326

Chamic Migration 329

Nephrite and Other Early Metal Age Exchange Networks across

the South China Sea 333

An Invited Perspective by Hsiao]chun Hung 333

The Arrival of Indian Influence in Island Southeast Asia 335

After the Early Metal Age 338

Notes 338

References 339

10 Island Southeast Asian Prehistory: A Comparative Perspective 345

References 351

Index 352

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