Learning/Memory Cl (Eichenbaum)

Edition: 00
Format: Hardcover
Pub. Date: 2008-03-24
Publisher(s): W. W. Norton & Company
List Price: $188.56

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Utilizing three key strategies, the book achieves this synthesis by first taking an interdisciplinary approach, integrating theories and research from the fields of animal learning, human memory, and neuroscience. Next, Eichenbaum incorporates animal and human research literature throughout to give the book a strong comparative dimension. Finally, Eichenbaum organizes the text around multiple memory systems, moving from simple to more complex forms of learning and memory.Complemented by a comprehensive art program featuring nearly 175 drawings and photos, Learning & Memory is a path-breaking text, thoroughly integrating neuroscience and behavioral research to clearly convey the contemporary science of the mind.

Author Biography

Howard Eichenbaum (Ph.D. University of Michigan) is University Professor at Boston University, where he is also Director of the Center for Memory and Brain and Chair of the Psychology Department

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
The Nature of Learning and Memoryp. 2
Memory Defines Our Individualityp. 4
Memory Plays a Pervasive Role in Daily Lifep. 7
Amazing Cases of Amnesiap. 8
The Study of Learning and Memory Has a Long Historyp. 12
Modern Scientific Approaches to the Study of Learning and Memoryp. 20
Themes of This Bookp. 23
Chapter Summaryp. 35
The Neural Bases of Learning and Memoryp. 38
Cells, Circuits, and Systemsp. 40
Neurons: The Cellular Units of Information Processingp. 41
Learning & Memory in Action: What Happens to the Brain When We Age?p. 45
Interconnected Neurons in Brain Circuits Serve Specific Functionsp. 53
Learning & Memory in Action: Can Genetic Alterations Improve Memory?p. 62
Brain Systems Serve Psychological Functionsp. 63
Chapter Summaryp. 81
Unconscious Forms of Learning and Memory
Simple Forms of Learning and Memoryp. 86
Habituation and Sensitization Are Nonassociative Forms of Learningp. 88
Habituation Occurs within Brain Circuitsp. 89
Habituation Helps Us Study Recognition Memoryp. 91
Learning & Memory in Action: How Do Advertisers Use Dishabituation to Direct Attention to Their Products?p. 96
Primitive Nervous Systems Reveal the Biology of Habituationp. 97
Sensitization Increases Responsivenessp. 100
Learning & Memory in Action: Why Do Horror Movies Heighten Our Responses to Benign Events?p. 102
Chapter Summaryp. 105
Perceptual Learning and Memoryp. 108
Characteristics of Perceptual Learning and Memoryp. 110
Perceptual Skill Learning: Identifying Stimulip. 112
Learning & Memory in Action: Can Someone Really Be a "Born Expert"?p. 113
Learning & Memory in Action: How Can Farmers Distinguish between Male and Female Baby Chicks?p. 118
Perceptual Memoriesp. 130
Chapter Summaryp. 140
Procedural Learning I: Classical Conditioningp. 142
Pavlov Began the Study of Classical Conditioningp. 144
Classical Conditioning Provides Protocols for Studying Simple Motor Responsesp. 147
Variations in Conditioning Reveal Its Basic Propertiesp. 151
Learning & Memory in Action: How Do Clinicians Treat Phobias?p. 158
Complex Associations in Classical Conditioningp. 158
The Nature of the Association in Classical Conditioningp. 162
Neural Circuits Build Reflex Arcs to Support Classical Conditioningp. 166
Classical Conditioning Can Illuminate Other Memory Systemsp. 172
Learning & Memory in Action: Can Coyotes Be Trained Not to Prey on Sheep?p. 176
Chapter Summaryp. 178
Procedural Learning II: Habits and Instrumental Learningp. 182
Instrumental Learning Changes Reinforced Behavior to Reflect Memoryp. 184
Reinforcers Modify the Predictive Relationship between Stimulus and Responsep. 185
Learning & Memory in Action: What Is the Basis of Losing Streaks?p. 189
Animals Learn about the Environment and Expect Reinforcersp. 191
Humans' Habits and Skills Combine Cognitive Memory and Instrumental Learning of Motor Programsp. 201
Striatal Cortical Pathways Support Instrumental Learning and Skill Acquisitionp. 203
Learning & Memory in Action: Why Does Stress Often Cause Forgetting?p. 207
Chapter Summaryp. 216
Emotional Learning and Memoryp. 218
Emotion and Memory Mix at Multiple Levelsp. 220
Emotional Learning Can Occur without Conscious Recollectionp. 221
Learning & Memory in Action: Why Do Advertisers Bombard Us with Product Names and Images?p. 228
Emotions Influence the Strength of Cognitive Memoriesp. 229
Neural Circuitry for Expressing Emotions Supports Emotional Learning and Memoryp. 233
Brain Circuits That Support Emotional Arousal and Attention Modulate Cognitive Memoryp. 244
Learning & Memory in Action: Why Are Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Anxiety So Difficult to Treat?p. 250
Chapter Summaryp. 252
Conscious Forms of Learning and Memory
Cognitive Memoryp. 256
Cognitive Memory Is Declarative; Behavioral Memory Is Proceduralp. 260
Cognitive Memory Is Flexible and Inferentialp. 261
Learning & Memory in Action: How Do People Make Creative Leaps?p. 263
Human Cognitive Memory: Distinct Encoding and Retrieval Strategiesp. 264
Learning & Memory in Action: How Do Mnemonists Perform Their Tricks?p. 276
Cognitive Memory Uses a Circuit of Cortical Structures and the Hippocampusp. 277
Animal Models Identify the Role of the Hippocampus in Cognitive Memoryp. 281
Chapter Summaryp. 292
Episodic Memoryp. 294
Defining Episodic Memoryp. 296
Fundamental Properties of Episodic Memoryp. 300
Learning & Memory in Action: Eyewitness Testimonyp. 302
The Hippocampus Supports Episodic Memoryp. 306
Learning & Memory in Action: Aging and Memory Lossp. 310
Episodic Memory May Exist in Animalsp. 314
Hippocampal Neurons Represent Episodic Memoriesp. 324
Chapter Summaryp. 330
Semantic Memoryp. 332
Defining Semantic Memoryp. 334
Learning & Memory in Action: How Can Computers Learn to Recognize Speech?p. 340
Spatial Memories May Be Organized as Routes or Surveysp. 341
Learning & Memory in Action: Designing Citiesp. 344
The Organization of Semantic Information Processingp. 345
Episodic Memory Contributes to Semantic Memoryp. 352
Chapter Summaryp. 360
Memory Consolidationp. 362
Studies of Retrograde Amnesia Characterized Memory Consolidationp. 365
Memory Consolidation Has Two Distinct Stagesp. 370
Cellular Events Are the First Stage of Memory Consolidationp. 371
Learning & Memory in Action: Blocking Consolidation of Traumatic Memoriesp. 375
The Hippocampal-Cortical System Supports Prolonged Memory Reorganizationp. 376
Learning & Memory in Action: Does Sleep Aid Memory Consolidation?p. 386
Models of Cortical-Hippocampal Interactions Illuminate Memory Reorganizationp. 388
Chapter Summaryp. 394
Short-Term Memory and Working Memoryp. 396
Defining Short-Term Memoryp. 400
Working Memory Is Short-Term Memory with Several Componentsp. 408
Learning & Memory in Action: How Do Waitresses and Waiters Remember So Much?p. 412
Working Memory Is Controlled by the Prefrontal Cortexp. 415
Learning & Memory in Action: What Is It Like to Have Prefrontal Cortex Damage?p. 419
A Network of Cortical Areas Orchestrates Working Memoryp. 432
Chapter Summaryp. 436
Glossaryp. G-1
Referencesp. R-1
Creditsp. C-1
Name Indexp. N-1
Subject Indexp. S-1
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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