Media Essentials

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Edition: 5th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2019-10-02
Publisher(s): Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $140.92

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A concise and affordable resource for the mass communication course, Media Essentials provides a flexible, informative, and relevant breakdown of what the media is, how it works, and how it impacts today’s most talked-about subjects. From #metoo to content streaming to social media and politics, students learn how a wide variety of recent developments have impacted the mass-media landscape—and how past innovation and change have informed our current media world.

Media Essentials is available with LaunchPad, a robust online platform designed to help students fully engage with course content—and with the world of mass media. From our acclaimed LearningCurve adaptive quizzing, which helps students learn and retain concepts, to compelling features like an interactive e-book and a variety of entertaining and thought-provoking video clips, LaunchPad gets students connected with—and interested in—the information they need to succeed in class.

Table of Contents



1 Mass Communication: A Critical Approach
The Evolution of Mass Communication
The Oral and Written Eras
The Print Era
The Electronic Era
The Digital Era
The Development of Media and Their Role in Society
The Evolution of Media: From Emergence to Convergence
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study FOMO in a Digital World
[[Web Clip]] Social Media and FOMO
Debating Media’s Role in Everyday Life
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Agenda-Setting and Gatekeeping
The Cultural Approach to Media Studies
Moving from a Linear Model to a Cultural Model
Surveying the Cultural Landscape
Tracing Changes in Values
Critiquing Media and Developing Media Literacy
Media Literacy and the Critical Process
Masculinity and the Media
[[LaunchPad clip]] Masculinity On Screen: Tough Guise 2
Benefits of a Critical Perspective

2 Books and the Power of Print
The Early History of Books: From Papyrus to Paperbacks
Papyrus, Parchment, and Codex: The Development Stage of Books
Writing and Printing Innovations: Books Enter the Entrepreneurial Stage
The Printing Press and the Publishing Industry: Books Become a Mass Medium
The Evolution of Modern Publishing
The Formation of Publishing Houses
 Types of Books
Trends in Contemporary Book Publishing
Convergence: Books in the Digital Age
Audio Books
Influences of Television and Film in the Digital Age
[[LaunchPad clip]] Based On: Making Books into Movies
The Organization and Economics of the Book Industry
The Conglomerates
The Structure of Book Publishing
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study The Epic Rise of Instapoets
[[Web Clip]] Rupi Kaur: Instapoet
Selling Books
[[LaunchPad clip]] Amazon’s Brick-and-Mortar Bookstores
Books in a Democratic Society
Physical Deterioration
Resiliency of Reading
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY Banned Books and “Family Values”
[[LaunchPad clip]] Banned Books On Screen: Huck Finn

3 Newspapers to Digital Frontiers: Journalism’s Journey
The Early History of American Journalism
Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press
The Penny Press: Becoming a Mass Medium
Yellow Journalism
The Evolution of Newspaper Journalism: Competing Models and the Rise of Professionalism
“Objectivity” and Professionalization in Modern Journalism
Interpretive Journalism
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY Investigative Journalism: In the “Spotlight”
[[LaunchPad clip]] Investigative Journalism On Screen: Spotlight
Journalism Evolves across Media
Journalism on the Airwaves
Internet Convergence Accelerates Changes to Journalism
The Culture of News and Rituals of Reporting
What Is News?
Values in American Journalism
When Values Collide: Ethics and the News Media
The Economics of Journalism in the Twenty-First Century
A Business Model in Transition
Newspaper Operations
Consolidation and a Crash
[[LaunchPad clip]] Newspapers and the Internet: Convergence
Changes, Challenges, and Threats to Journalism Today
Social Media
Citizen Journalism
Satiric Journalism
Fake News
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Attacking Journalism: Trolls and State-Sponsored Troll Armies
[[Web Clip]] Global Attacks on Journalism
Journalism in a Democratic Society
Social Responsibility
The Troubled Future of Journalism

4 Magazines in the Age of Specialization
The Early History of Magazines
The First Magazines: European Origins
Magazines in Eighteenth-Century America: The Voices of Revolution
Magazines in Nineteenth-Century America: Specialization and General Interest
Going National as the Twentieth Century Approaches
The Evolution of Modern American Magazines
Distribution and Production Costs Plummet
Muckrakers Expose Social Ills
General-Interest Magazines Hit Their Stride
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY The Evolution of Photojournalism
[[Web Clip]] The Power of Photojournalism
General-Interest Magazines Decline
Types of Magazines: Domination of Specialization
[[LaunchPad clip]] Magazine Specialization Today
Men’s and Women’s Magazines
Entertainment, Leisure, and Sports Magazines
Age-Specific Magazines
Elite Magazines
Minority-Targeted Magazines
Trade Magazines
Alternative Magazines
Supermarket Tabloids
Online Magazines
[[LaunchPad clip]] Narrowcasting in Magazines
The Organization and Economics of Magazines
Magazine Departments and Duties
Major Magazine Chains
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Snapchats and Podcasts: Magazine Publishing Turns New Pages
[[LaunchPad clip]] Magazines On Screen: 13 Going on 30
Magazines in a Democratic Society

5 Sound Recording and Popular Music
The Early History and Evolution of Sound Recording
From Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Sound Recordings from a Century Ago
From Records to Tapes to CDs: Analog Goes Digital
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Recording Music Today
From Downloads to Streaming: Sound Recording Goes through the Digital Turn
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY The New Masters of Music Modernization: Daniel Ek, Spotify, and Streaming Services
[[Web Clip]] Spotify and Streaming
The Music Industry and Radio: A Rocky Relationship
U.S. Popular Music and the Rise of Rock
The Rise of Pop Music
Rock and Roll Arrives
Rock Blurs Additional Boundaries
The Evolution of Pop Music
The British Are Coming!
Motown: The Home of Soul
Folk and Psychedelic: Protest and Drugs
Punk and Indie Respond to Mainstream Rock
Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines
The Country Road
The Economics of Sound Recording
A Shifting Power Structure
The Indies Grow with Digital Music
Making, Selling, and Profiting from Music
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study 360 Degrees of Music
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Touring On Screen: Katy Perry
Sound Recording in a Democratic Society

6 Popular Radio and the Origins of Broadcasting
The Early History of Radio
Inventors Paving the Way: Morse, Maxwell, and Hertz
Innovators in Wireless: Marconi, Fessenden, and De Forest
Early Regulation of Radio
The Networks
The Radio Act of 1927
The Golden Age of Radio
The Evolution of Radio
Transistors: Making Radio Portable
The FM Revolution
The Rise of Format Radio
The Characteristics of Contemporary Radio
Format Specialization
Nonprofit Radio and NPR
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY How Did Talk Radio Become So One-Sided?
[[Web Clip]] News/Talk Radio on YouTube
Radio and Convergence
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Going Visual: Video, Radio, and the Web
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Streaming Services Set Their Sights on Broadcast Radio
[[Web Clip]] Streaming Music Videos
The Economics of Commercial Radio
Selling Ads and Paying for Programming
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Radio: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
Manipulating Playlists with Payola
Radio Ownership: From Diversity to Consolidation
Radio in a Democratic Society

7 Movies and the Impact of Images
[[LaunchPad Clip]]
Storytelling in Star Wars
The Early History of Movies
Advances in Film Technology
Telling Stories: The Introduction of Narrative
The Arrival of Nickelodeons
The Evolution of the Hollywood Studio System
Edison’s Attempt to Control the Industry
A Closer Look at the Three Pillars
Hollywood’s Golden Age: The Development of Style
Narrative Techniques in the Silent Era
Augmenting Images with Sound
Inside the Hollywood System: Setting the Standard for Narrative Style
Outside the Hollywood System: Providing Alternatives
 [[LaunchPad Clip]] Breaking Barriers with 12 Years a Slave
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY Breaking through Hollywood’s Race Barrier
[[LaunchPad Clip]] A Hollywood Blockbuster: Black Panther
The Transformation of the Hollywood Studio System
The Paramount Decision
Flight to the Suburbs
Television Changes Hollywood
Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment
The Economics of the Movie Business
Making Money on Movies Today
Conglomerations and Synergy in the Movie Industry
Theater Chains Consolidate Exhibition
Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Digital Turn
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Attracting an Audience in a Digital Age
[[Web Clip]] Digital Marketing for Popular Movies
The Movies in a Democratic Society
[[LaunchPad Clip]] More Than a Movie: Social Issues and Film

8 Television, Cable, and Specialization in Visual Culture
The Early History of Television
Becoming a Mass Medium
Controlling TV Content
Staining Television’s Reputation
Introducing Cable
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Television Networks Evolve
The Evolution of Network Programming
Information: Network News
Entertainment: Comedy
Entertainment: Drama
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Television Drama:?Then and Now
Talk Shows and TV Newsmagazines
Reality Television
Public Television
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation in TV Programming
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Race in TV Programming: Black-ish
The Evolution of Cable Programming
Basic Cable
Premium Cable
Regulatory Challenges Facing Television and Cable
Restricting Broadcast Networks’ Control
Reining in Cable’s Growth—for a While
Technology and Convergence Change Viewing Habits
Home Video and Recording
The Internet, Smartphones, and Mobile Video
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Bingeing Purges Traditional Viewing Habits
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Bingeable Series: Stranger Things
The Economics of Television, Cable, and Streaming Video
Syndication Keeps Shows Going and Going . . .
Measuring Television Viewing
The Major Programming Corporations
Television in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials

9 The Internet and New Technologies: The Media Converge
The Early History of the Internet
Military Functions, Civic Roots
The Net Widens
The Evolution of the Internet: Going Commercial, Getting Social, Making Meaning
The Commercialization of the Internet
The Web Gets Social
[[LaunchPad Clip]] The Rise of Social Media
The Next Era: The Semantic Web
[[LaunchPad Clip]] The Internet in 1995: The Net
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Social Media Fraud and Elections
[[Web Clip]] Understanding Social Media Fraud
The Economics of the Internet
Ownership: Controlling the Internet
Targeted Advertising and Data Mining
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Reddit CEO on Net Neutrality
The Noncommercial Web
Security and Appropriateness on the Internet
Information Security:?What’s Private?
Personal Safety: Online Predators, Spreading Hate, and Deciding What’s Appropriate
The Internet in a Democratic Society
Access: Closing the Digital Divide
Ownership and Customization
Chapter Essentials

10 Digital Gaming and the Media Playground
The Early History of Digital Gaming
Mechanical Gaming
The First Video Games
The Evolution of Digital Gaming
Arcades and Classic Games
Consoles Power Up
Computer Gaming
The Internet and Social Gaming
Trends and Issues in Digital Gaming
Communities of Play: Inside the Game
Communities of Play: Outside the Game
Immersion and Addiction
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Games in the Great Wide Open: Pokémon Go and the Future of Mobile Gaming 
[[Web Clip]] Pokémon Go and Mobile Gaming
Violence and Misogyny
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study Fighting the Dark Side of Gaming Culture: Anita Sarkeesian and Feminist Frequency
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Anita Sarkeesian and #GamerGate
The Economics of Digital Gaming
Selling Digital Games
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Video Games at the Movies: Resident Evil
Making Digital Games
Digital Gaming in a Democratic Society
Free Speech and Video Games
Alternate Voices
Chapter Essentials

11 Advertising and Commercial Culture
The Early History of American Advertising: 1850s to 1950s
The First Advertising Agencies
Retail Stores: Giving Birth to Branding
Patent Medicines: Making Outrageous Claims
Department Stores: Fueling a Consumer Culture
Transforming American Society
Early Regulation of Advertising
The Evolution of U.S. Advertising: 1950s to Today
Visual Design Comes to the Fore
New Breeds of Advertising Agencies Are Born
Ad Agencies Develop a Distinctive Structure
Online and Mobile Advertising Alter the Ad Landscape
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Advertising in the Digital Age
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Does the Digital Turn Spell Doom for Network TV?
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Internet vs. TV Ad Spending
Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising
Using Conventional Persuasive Strategies
Associating Products with Values
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY Idiots and Objects: Stereotyping in Advertising
[[insert Web Clip]] Parodying Ad Stereotypes 
Telling Stories
Placing Products in Media
Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising
Targeting Children and Teens
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Advertising and Effects on Children
Triggering Anorexia and Overeating
Promoting Smoking
Promoting Drinking
Hawking Drugs Directly to Consumers
Monitoring the Advertising Industry
Advertising in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials

12 Public Relations and Framing the Message
Early History of Public Relations
Age of the Press Agent: P. T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill
Business Adopts Press Agent Methods
Professional Public Relations Emerges
The Evolution of Public Relations
[[Web Clip]] The Influence of Edward Bernays
PR Agencies and In-House PR Staffs
A Closer Look at Public Relations Functions
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Military PR in the Digital Age
[[Web Clip]] Military PR and Lady Gaga
Public Relations in the Internet Age
Tensions between Public Relations and the Press
Elements of Interdependence
Journalists’ Skepticism about PR Practices
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Give and Take: Public Relations and Journalism
Shaping PR’s Image
Public Relations in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials


13 Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression
The Origins of Free Expression and a Free Press
A Closer Look at the First Amendment
Interpretations of Free Expression
The Evolution of Censorship
Unprotected Forms of Expression
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Is “Sexting” Pornography?
[[LaunchPad Clip]] MTV Explores Sexting and the Law
First Amendment versus Sixth Amendment
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Bloggers and Legal Rights
Film and the First Amendment
Citizens and Lawmakers Control the Movies
The Movie Industry Regulates Itself
The First Amendment, Broadcasting, and the Internet
The FCC Regulates Broadcasting
Dirty Words, Indecent Speech, and Hefty Fines
Political Broadcasts and Equal Opportunity
The Demise of the Fairness Doctrine
Communication Policy and the Internet
The First Amendment in a Democratic Society
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY Fake News, the First Amendment, and Fighting Propaganda
[[Web Clip]] Stopping the Spread of Fake News
Chapter Essentials

14 Media Economics and the Global Marketplace
The Transition to an Information Economy
How Media Industries Are Structured
From Regulation to Deregulation
The Rise of Media Powerhouses
THE DIGITAL TURN Case Study Are the Big Digital Companies Too Big?
[[LaunchPad Clip]] The Impact of Media Ownership
Analyzing the Media Economy
How Media Companies Operate
How the Internet Is Changing the Game
Business Trends in Media Industries
The Age of Hegemony
Specialization and Global Markets
The Rise of Specialization and Synergy
Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Disney’s Global Brand: Frozen
The Growth of Global Audiences
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY Netflix and Change: The Streaming Revolution and the Business of Content Creation
[[Web Clip]] Netflix on YouTube
Social Issues in Media Economics
The Limits of Antitrust Laws
The Fallout from a Free Market
Cultural Imperialism
The Media Marketplace in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials

15 Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Media Research
Early Media Research Methods
Propaganda Analysis
Public Opinion Research
Social Psychology Studies
Marketing Research
THE DIGITAL TURN CASE STUDY Artificial Intelligence Gets Personal
[[Web Clip]] Amazon’s Powerful Algorithm
Research on Media Effects
Early Models of Media Effects
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Media Effects Research
Conducting Media Effects Research
Contemporary Theories of Media Effects
Evaluating Research on Media Effects
Cultural Approaches to Media Research
Early Developments in Cultural Studies Media Research
Contemporary Cultural Studies Approaches
MEDIA LITERACY CASE STUDY Does Art Imitate Life or Life Imitate Art? TV Depictions of Suicide and Copycat Fears
[[LaunchPad Clip]] Suicide On TV: 13 Reasons Why
Evaluating Cultural Studies Research
Media Research in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials
Notes N-1
Glossary G-1
Index I-1

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