Multicultural Law Enforcement Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society

by ; ;
Edition: 7th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2018-01-31
Publisher(s): Pearson
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For courses covering multicultural issues in law enforcement.

A classic text in peacekeeping, cultural awareness, and diversity in law enforcement
Multicultural Law Enforcement: Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society provides practical information and insight to prepare officers for culturally sensitive policing. The content explores the pervasive influences of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation in the workplace and in multicultural communities. It also delves into topics such as gangs, victims of human trafficking, homelessness, mental illness, and international events and their impact on law enforcement in the U.S. The 7th edition reflects new and expanded information on issues facing law enforcement professionals and the communities they serve, such as implicit biases and police-community mutual stereotypes.

Author Biography

Robert M. Shusta, Captain (retired), MPA, served over 27 years in law enforcement, and retired as Captain at the Concord (California) Police Department. He has been a part-time instructor at numerous colleges and universities in northern California and at police academies. He is a graduate of the 158th FBI National Academy and the fourth California Command College conducted by POST. He has served on state commissions responsible for developing POST guidelines and state policy recommendations. (Retired) Captain Shusta has conducted extensive training on cultural awareness and hate crimes as well as Train the Trainer programs on combating domestic violence. His interest in increasing officers’ familiarity with the challenges of policing a multicultural society began with his Command College thesis, introducing a model development plan for law enforcement agencies experiencing demographic changes due to immigration. (Retired) Captain Shusta is one of the early pioneers to bring attention to the need for cross-cultural awareness in law enforcement.

Deena R. Levine, MA
, has been providing consulting and training to organizations in both the public and the private sectors for nearly 30 years. She is the principal of Deena Levine & Associates, LLC, a firm specializing in multicultural workplace training as well as global cross-cultural business consulting. She and her associates, together with representatives from community organizations, have provided programs to law enforcement agencies, focusing on cross-cultural and human relations. Ms. Levine has also consulted with and provided training to social service agencies, educational institutions, and corporations. She began her career in cross-cultural training at the Intercultural Relations Institute, formerly at Stanford University, developing multicultural workforce understanding for managers and supervisors. She has published additional texts on the cultural aspects of communication, including Beyond Language: Cross-Cultural Communication (Regents/Prentice Hall).

Aaron T. Olson, MEd
, is an adjunct professor at Portland Community College (PCC), Portland, Oregon, and Eastern Oregon University (EOU), La Grande, Oregon, where he teaches courses on multicultural diversity. He designed the first cultural diversity courses and curricula for PCC’s criminal justice program in 2001, fire protection program in 2009, and EOU’s fire service administration program in 2011. Outside of academia, he is an independent consultant, specializing in staff development, training, and problem-solving for businesses and government agencies. Since 2003, he has provided multicultural training for fire, police, and 911 public safety personnel. He is a U.S. Army Veteran, retired Oregon State Police patrol sergeant and shift supervisor with 26 years of police experience in communications, recruiting, and patrol assignments. He is a former investigator with the Local Government Personnel Institute with an expertise in investigating elected city and county officials, police chiefs, and other government employees for workforce misconduct, sexual harassment, sexual discrimination, retaliation, and gender bias. In 2002, he established public safety workshops for immigrants and refugees at the Immigrant Refugee Community Organization, Portland, Oregon, which ended in 2015.

Table of Contents


1. Multicultural Communities: Challenges for Law Enforcement
The Interface of Law Enforcement and Diverse Communities
Attitudes about the Multicultural Society: Past and Present
Global Migration, Refugees, and Immigrants in the United States
Culture and Its Relevance to Law Enforcement
Dimensions of Diversity
Prejudice and Bias in Law Enforcement
Police Leadership in a Multicultural Society
Discussion Questions and Issues

2. The Changing Law Enforcement Agency: A Microcosm of Society
Changing Workforce
Racism Within the Law Enforcement Workforce
Women in Law Enforcement
LGBTQ Employees in Law Enforcement
Commitment, Leadership, and Management in the Diverse Workforce
Discussion Questions and Issues

3. Multicultural Representation in Law Enforcement: Recruitment, Retention, and Promotion
Recruitment of a Diverse Workforce
Attracting and Retaining Women and Minorities
Selection Processes
Retention and Promotion of a Diverse Workforce
Discussion Questions and Issues

4. Cross-Cultural Communication for Law Enforcement
Language Barriers
Attitudes toward Limited English Speakers
Cross-Cultural Communication Insights
Cross-Cultural/Racial Communication Dynamics
The Importance of Verbal De-Escalation
Interviewing and Data-Gathering Skills
Nonverbal Communication
Male-Female Communication in Law Enforcement
Discussion Questions and Issues


5. Law Enforcement Contact with Asian/Pacific Americans
Asian/Pacific American Defined
Historical Information
Demographics: Diversity among Asian/Pacific Americans
Labels and Terms
Myths and Stereotypes
The Asian/Pacific American Family
Communication Styles of Asian/Pacific Americans
Key Issues in Law Enforcement
Discussion Questions and Issues

6. Law Enforcement Contact with African Americans
Historical Information
Demographics: Diversity among African Americans
Identity and Selected Movements
Stereotypes and Cross-Racial Perceptions
The African American Family
Language and Communication
Key Issues in Law Enforcement
Discussion Questions and Issues

7. Law Enforcement Contact with Latino/Hispanic Americans
Latino/Hispanic Americans Defined
Historical Information
Demographics: Diversity among Latino/Hispanic Americans
Myths and Stereotypes
The Latino/Hispanic American Family
Communication Styles of Latino/Hispanic Americans
Key Issues in Law Enforcement
Discussion Questions and Issues

8. Law Enforcement Contact with Arab Americans and Other Middle Eastern Groups
Middle Easterners and Related Terminology Defined
Historical Information and Arab American Demographics
Differences and Similarities
Islamic Religion
Family Structure
Communication Styles and Cultural Practices
Key Issues in Law Enforcement
Discussion Questions and Issues

9. Law Enforcement Contact with Native Americans
Historical Information and Background
Native American Populations, Reservations, Tribes, and Identity
Similarities among Native Americans
Language and Communication
Offensive Terms, Labels, and Stereotypes
Family and Acculturation Issues
Key Issues in Law Enforcement
Discussion Questions and Issues

10. Law Enforcement Contact with Gangs, Victims of Human Trafficking, the Homeless, and the Mentally Ill
Types of Gangs and Criminal Activity
Reasons for Gang Formation
Law Enforcement Strategies to Reduce Gang Problems
Victims of Human Trafficking
Physical and Psychological Health Consequences on Victims
Law Enforcement Strategies to Stop Human Trafficking
The Demographics of Homelessness
Peacekeeping Responses to the Homelessness Crisis
Understanding Dimensions of Mental Illness
Police Protocol in Encounters with People Who Have Mental Illness
Proactive Response Strategies Between Police and People with Mental Illness
Discussion Questions and Issues


11. Hate/Bias Crimes
The Hate/Bias Crime Problem
Definition of Hate/Bias Crime and Hate/Bias Incident
Hate/Bias Crime Source Theories
Jews and Anti-Semitism
Anti-Arab/Muslim Victimization
LGBTQ and Gender Identity Victimization
Organized Hate Groups
Hate/Bias Crime and Incident Investigations
Hate/Bias Crime/Incident Control and Prosecution
Law Enforcement Response Strategies
Hate/Bias Crime and Incident Victimology
Discussion Questions and Issues

12. Racial Profiling
Historical Background of the Term Racial Profiling
Profiling Challenges and Terrorism
Police and Citizens’ Perceptions of Racial Profiling
Profiling as a Legal Tool of Law Enforcement
Controversy around Racial Profiling and the “War on Terrorism”
Prevention of Racial Profiling in Law Enforcement
Professional Police Traffic Stops
Data Collection on Citizens’ Race/Ethnicity
Discussion Questions and Issues

A. General Distinctions among Generations of Immigrants
B. Cross-Cultural Communication Skills Assessment for Law Enforcement Professionals
C. Listing of Selected Gangs and Identifying Characteristics
D. Resources for Law Enforcement: Gangs and Human Trafficking
E. Organized Hate Groups
F. Resources for Hate/Bias Crimes Monitoring

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