Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict A History with Documents

Edition: 9th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2016-09-09
Publisher(s): Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $86.39

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Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict provides a comprehensive, balanced, and accessible narrative of a complex historical topic. The narrative is supported by more than 40 primary documents that highlight perspectives from all sides of the struggle. Throughout the book, the author examines how underlying issues, group motives, religious and cross-cultural clashes, diplomacy and imperialism, and the arrival of the modern era shaped this volatile region. Maps, photographs, chronologies, public opinion polls, and discussion questions help facilitate student understanding. A fully updated final chapter makes this the most current history of the topic.

Author Biography

CHARLES D. SMITH is professor emeritus of Middle East history in the School of Middle East and North African Studies, University of Arizona. He has been awarded numerous grants for research in the Middle East, was a Fulbright scholar in Egypt, and served as a member of the Institute for Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and as president of the American Research Center in Egypt. He has published scholarly articles on many topics, including Egyptian Islam, Anglo-French imperialism in the Middle East, and nationalism and identity. He is the author of Islam and the Search for Social Order in Modern Egypt and co-author of The Modern Middle East and North Africa: A History in Documents, which was awarded the 2013 Undergraduate Education Award by the Middle East Studies Association [MESA]; he received the Mentor of the Year award from MESA in 2012 for his teaching and guidance of students at the undergraduate and graduate levels.  He is currently writing a study of Anglo-French relations and European imperial goals in the Middle East during World War I. Professor Smith’s numerous media appearances include interviews on Bloomberg News, The History Channel, and Fresh Air as well as invited commentaries from England, Australia, Brazil, Canada, and China.

Table of Contents

PROLOGUE. The Arab-Israeli Conflict in Historical Perspective: The Middle East and Palestine to 1517 
Ancient Israel and Palestine to the Coming of Islam 
Political Fragmentation and Rebellion to the Roman Period 
Palestine under Roman and Byzantine Rule 
The Arabs and the Spread of Islam 
Islam and Its Relationship to Judaism and Christianity 
Palestine under Muslim Rule to 1517 

Commercial Relations and Military Decline, 1500–1800 
Regional Strife, Imperial Interventions, and Ottoman Retraction, 1800–1914 
Ottoman Society and European Inroads: Communal Tensions in an Age of Reform 
Palestine in the Nineteenth Century

Changing Patterns: Trade, Land, Agriculture, and Population 
Zionism: Its Origins and Development to 1914 
The Jews of Western Europe 
Eastern European Jewry and the Rise of Zionism 
Theodor Herzl and the Zionist Movement to 1914 
The Arab Response to Zionism
Ottoman Policies and Jewish Land Purchases 
Growing Apprehension: Palestine and the Arab World 
Questions for Consideration 

DOCUMENT 1.1  The Islahat Fermani [Hatti Humayoun] of February 44 1856 
DOCUMENT 1.2 Theodor Herzl, Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) 
DOCUMENT 1.3Naguib Azoury, From The Awakening of the Arab Nation, 1905 

2. WORLD WAR I, GREAT BRITAIN, AND THE PEACE SETTLEMENTS: Deciding Palestine’s Fate, 1914–1921 
World War I: The Ottoman Empire and the European Powers 
British Imperial Objectives 
Britain, the Arabs, and the Husayn-McMahon Correspondence, 1915–1916 
The Lure of an Arab Revolt 
The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence: Defining the Terms 
McMahon’s Deception: The Roots of Arab Bitterness 
Anglo-French Interests and the Sykes-Picot Agreement 
Spheres of Control and Influence 
British Evaluation of Their Commitments 
Britain, Palestine, and the Balfour Declaration 
Chaim Weizmann and British Politics 
British War Aims and Palestine 
Negotiating the Text 
Goals versus Promises: The European Powers, Zionism, and the Arabs, 1917–1918 
Reassuring Sharif Husayn 
Syria and “Self-Determination” 
Zionist-Arab Fears: The Faysal-Weizmann Agreement 
The Peace Settlements and the Mandate System 
Faysal and the British-French Struggle for Syria 
Wilson, the League of Nations, and the Mandate System 
Postwar Crises and the Creation of Transjordan 
Questions for Consideration 
  The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence, July 1915–January 1916 
DOCUMENT 2.2 Drafts and Final Text of the Balfour Declaration 
DOCUMENT 2.3 The Faysal-Weizmann Agreement, January 3, 1919 
DOCUMENT 2.4 Resolutions of the General Syrian Congress, July 2 ,1919 
DOCUMENT 2.5 Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, January 1920 
DOCUMENT 2.6 The Mandate for Palestine, July 24, 1922 

3.  PALESTINE BETWEEN THE WARS: Zionism, the Palestinian Arabs, and the British Mandate, 1920–1939 
The First Phase: Hopes Fulfilled and Dashed, 1918–1920 
Political Leadership in Palestinian Arab and Zionist Communities 
Palestinian Arabs and British Policies 
Zionist Leadership in Palestine and Abroad 
Jews and Arabs under the Mandate: The Clash of Conflicting Aspirations 
The Land Question 
The Conflict over the Western Wall, 1928–1929 
Investigations and Retractions: The Passfield White Paper 
European Crises and Their Repercussions: Yishuv Expansion and Arab Rebellion 
The Arab Revolt: Its Roots and Impact on Palestine 
Britain Rethinks Its Obligations: The 1939 White Paper 
Palestine in British Strategy 
Partition Foiled: The Woodhead Commission 
The St. James Conference 
The 1939 White Paper 
Great Britain and Palestine on the Eve of World War II 
Questions for Consideration 
 The Churchill White Paper, July 1, 1922 
DOCUMENT 3.2 Palestine Royal (Peel) Commission Report, July 1937 
DOCUMENT 3.3 The 1939 White Paper

Palestine, Zionism, and the War Effort, 1939–1945

World War II and the Middle East 
Palestine: Jewish Immigration and the British Response 
The Jewish Division and the Question of Jewish Military Capabilities 
The Biltmore Conference and Its Consequences 
The White Paper, Partition, and Britain’s Place in the Middle East, 1942–1945 
Jewish Terrorism, the Hagana, and the British, 1940–1945 
Palestinian Arab Leadership and the Question of Arab Unity, 1939–1945 
The End of the Mandate and the Creation of Israel, 1945–1949 
The Middle East and Postwar Tensions: Origins of the Cold War 
Anglo-American Perspectives on Palestine 
Great Britain, the United States, and Zionism, July 1945–February 1947 
UNSCOP and United Nations’ Ratification of Partition, February–November 1947 
The Battle for Palestine/Israel, December 1947–May 1948 
The Arab-Israeli Wars and the Armistices, 1948–1949 
Questions for Consideration 
 The “Final Solution”: Nazi Extermination of European Jewry 
DOCUMENT 4.2 UNSCOP’s Plan of Partition with Economic Union 
DOCUMENT 4.3Jamal al-Husayni, Testimony on Palestinian Arab Reaction to the UNSCOP Proposals, September 29, 1947 
DOCUMENT 4.4Rabbi Hillel Silver, Testimony on Zionist Reaction to the UNSCOP Proposals, October 2, 1947 
DOCUMENT 4.5 Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948

5.  THE BEGINNING OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT: Regional Strife and Cold War Rivalries, 1949–1957 
Israel, the Arab States, and the Palestinian/Israeli Arabs, 1949–1954

Israel: Government, Citizenship, and the Law 
Israeli Arabs: Dispossession and Isolation 
The Palestinian Refugees 
The Western Allies, Israel, and the Arab-Israeli Conflict 
Israeli Views of Arabs and the World 
The Arab States: Domestic Turmoil and Regional Rivalries 
The Cold War and the Middle East: Looking for Allies, 1953–1955
Containment and the Northern Tier Concept 
The Baghdad Pact 
Israel, the Lavon Affair, and the Gaza Raid 
The Gaza Raid and the Czech Arms Deal 
Israel and France Draw Closer 
Border Clashes and Blockade of the Straits of Tiran 
Countdown to Suez: Failed Diplomacy and Dreams of Empire, January–November 1956 
Carrots and Sticks: Projects and Peace Proposals 
Nasser Nationalizes the Canal 
Invasion Plans Take Shape 
The Attacks and Their Aftermath 
Questions for Consideration 
 5.1  United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 [Palestinian Refugee Question] – Progress Report of the United Nations Mediator, December 11, 1948  
DOCUMENT 5.2 Letter on the Position of the Palestinian Refugees, November 17, 1949 
DOCUMENT 5.3Gamal Abd al-Nasser, Speech Justifying Nationalization of the Suez Canal Company, July 28, 1956 
DOCUMENT 5.4 Golda Meir, Speech to the United Nations General Assembly, March 1, 1957 

The Struggle for Syria and the Creation of the United Arab Republic, 1957–1958 
The United States, Syria, and the Cold War 
The United Arab Republic: Context and Significance 
Lebanon: Political Strife, Civil War, and Regional Crisis, 1957–1958 
Maronite Catholics and Lebanese Political Alignments 
Lebanon’s Civil War and the Iraqi Revolution 
The Arab World in American Perspective: The Cold War Context 
Inter-Arab and Arab-Israeli Tensions, 1958–1964 
Nasser Strives to Dominate Arab Politics 
Water Wars: Israeli-Syrian Clashes and the Arab Response 
The Palestine Question in Arab Politics: The Palestine Liberation Organization and al-Fatah

Israeli Politics to 1967 
Great-Power Rivalries in the Middle East to 1967 
The United States between Israel and the Arabs 
Lyndon Johnson and Israel 
The Soviet Union and the Arab World 
The Crisis Escalates: Military Clashes, Misleading Assurances, and Failed Diplomacy 
Syrian-Israeli Tensions and Threats 
The Egyptian Blockade of the Tiran Straits 
Israeli Debates: Eshkol and the Generals 
Israel Attacks: U.S. Assurances and the Pending Egyptian Peace Initiative 
The Six-Day War: Israel’s Conquests and American Expectations 
Questions for Consideration 
Communiqué No. 1 from Headquarters of Asifa Forces (Fatah), January 6, 1965 
DOCUMENT 6.2Gamal Abd al-Nasser, Speech to Members of the Egyptian National Assembly, May 29, 1967 
DOCUMENT 6.3Abba Eban, Speech to the U.N. Security Council on Israel’s Reasons for Going to War, June 6, 1967 

7.  LAND, WAR, AND DIPLOMACY: Shifting Calculations in a Cold War Context, 1967–1976 
The Search for Negotiating Leverage, 1967–1971 
The Khartoum Conference 
Deliberate Ambiguity: Security Council Resolution 242 
Palestinian Agendas and Their Regional Repercussions 
Jordan and the Palestinians 
Palestinian Factions and the PLO 
Lebanon, the Palestinians, and Israel 
Wars of Attrition and Cold War Diplomacy: The Rogers Plan 
Competing Agendas: Nixon Administration Rivalries and Middle East Policy 
Globalism vs. Regionalism under Nixon: Analysis 
Jordan and the Palestinians, August–September 1970 
The Jordanian Crisis: Regional and International Repercussions 
The 1973 War and Its Consequences 
The Arabs: Seeking Responses to Signals 
Israel and the Politics of Expansion: The Galili Document 
The 1973 War: The Chance for Diplomacy 
Tactics and Ultimate Intentions: The PLO and Israel, 1973–1977 
Questions for Consideration 
 U.N. Security Council Resolution 242, November 22, 1967 
DOCUMENT 7.2 The Palestinian National Charter: Resolutions of the Palestine National Council, July 1–17, 1968; PLO Resolution on Security Council Resolution 242, June 1974 
DOCUMENT 7.3 U.N. Security Council Resolution 338, October 22, 1973 
DOCUMENT 7.4 Yasir Arafat, Address to the U.N. General Assembly, November 13, 1974 
DOCUMENT 7.5 Yosef Tekoah, Response to Arafat’s Address, November 13, 1974 

8.  LEBANON, THE WEST BANK, AND THE CAMP DAVID ACCORDS: The Palestinian Equation in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1977–1984 
The Lebanese Civil War and Its Aftermath, 1975–1978

Roots of the Lebanese Conflict 
Arab Factions and Alignments vis-à-vis Syria and Israel 
U.S. Diplomacy amid Regional Strife 
The Carter Administration and Camp David, January 1977–September 1978 
Carter’s Failed Attempts to Restructure Negotiating Parameters 
The Road to Camp David, November 1977–September 1978 
Camp David Exchanges: The West Bank and the Gaza Strip 
The Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty: The Carter Legacy 
The Reagan Administration and the Arab-Israeli Conflict
The Anticommunist Crusade: The Middle East in Global Perspective 
West Bank and Israeli Arabs between Jordan and Israel, 1948–1977 
Sharon’s Vision: Israel, Israeli Arabs, and the West Bank, 1977–1982 
Begin and the West Bank after Camp David

Lebanon: The Struggle for Hegemony 
The Phalange-Likud Alliance 
American Diplomacy and Its Impact 
The Israeli Invasion of Lebanon, August 1981–September 1982 
America’s Lebanon Policy, September 1982–February 1984 
Lebanon Postscript, 1984–1991: The Taif Accord and Hizbollah 
Questions for Consideration 
 Platform of the Likud Coalition, March 1977 
DOCUMENT 8.2 Anwar al-Sadat, Speech to the Israeli Knesset, November 20, 1977 
DOCUMENT 8.3Menachem Begin, Reply to President Sadat, November 20, 1977 
DOCUMENT 8.4 A Framework for Peace in the Middle East Agreed at Camp David, September 17, 1978

9.  FROM PARIAH TO PARTNER: The PLO and the Quest for Peace in Global and Regional Contexts, 1984–1993 
Peace Gambits, Terrorism, and Political Strife, 1984–1987

Competing Agendas and Coalition Politics: Israel and the Jordanian Option 
Temporary Allies: The Husayn-Arafat Accord 
The United States and Israel: Cold War Calculations

The Intifada 
Roots of the Intifada 
The Gaza Strip 
Intifada: The First Two Years, December 1987–December 1989 
The Intifada and Islamic Resistance 
The Intifada and International Politics, 1988–1991 
The First Gulf Crisis 
The United States: Motives and Opportunities 
Arab and Israeli Reactions to the Gulf Crisis 
The Intifada, the Gulf Crisis, and the Negotiating Process 
Diplomacy and Conflict: The Madrid Talks, October 1991–Summer 1993 
Questions for Consideration 

DOCUMENT 9.1 Communiqué No. 1 of the Intifada Issued by the Unified National Leadership, January 8, 1988 
DOCUMENT 9.2 Leaflet No. 1 of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas), January 1988 
DOCUMENT 9.3Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, Peace Initiative of the National Unity Government, May 14, 1989 

The 1993 Oslo Accord 
The Terms 
Analysis of the Accord 
East Jerusalem and the Settlements 
The Politics and Economics of Violence 
Economic and Diplomatic Inequalities 
Hebron and Hamas: Prelude to Oslo 2

Oslo 2 and the Rabin Assassination 
Terms of the Agreement 
The Rabin Assassination 
From Rabin to Netanyahu: The Peres Government and Likud’s Victory, November 1995–May 1996 
The Netanyahu Government, June 1996–July 1999 
Reciprocity and Confrontation 
The Hebron Agreement, January 1997 
Palestinian Communal Tensions and Charges of Corruption 
The Mashal Affair 
The Wye Memorandum and the Collapse of the Netanyahu Coalition 
Jewish Communal Strife: The Culture War Intensifies 
Domestic and Regional Realignments, December 1998–July 1999 
Questions for Consideration 

DOCUMENT 10.1 The Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles, Washington, D.C., September 13, 1993 
DOCUMENT 10.2 The Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement  (Oslo 2) on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, September 28, 1995 
DOCUMENT 10.3 Yitzhak Rabin’s Last Speech at Tel Aviv Peace Rally, November 4, 1995 

11. THE OSLO PROCESS UNDONE: Camp David 2000, Palestinian Rebellion/Factionalism, and Israeli Unilateralism: Identities in Conflict, 1999–2015 
Prelude to Camp David, July 1999–July 2000 
The Camp David Talks: Background and Context 
What Happened at Camp David? July 2000 
Initial Negotiating Positions 
Barak’s Proposal and Clinton’s Role 
Conflicting Interpretations 
Subsequent Diplomacy 
The Clinton Parameters 
The Taba Discussions, January 2001 
The Second Intifada
The Initial Stage, September 2000–March 2001 
The Political Context of the Intifada: Bush, Sharon, and Arafat 
Intensified Conflict and Suicide Bombings: The Israeli Barrier 
Iraq and the Neoconservative Vision of a U.S.-Israeli Strategic Alliance 
Official and Unofficial Reports and Peace Efforts, 2001–2005 
The Sharm al-Sheikh Fact-Finding (Mitchell) Committee 
The Rose Garden Address, June 2002 
The Road Map vs. the Rose Garden Address 
The Aqaba Summit, June 2003 
The Geneva Initiative, October 2003
The Israeli Disengagement Plan 
The Disengagement Plan and Israeli Politics 
The Palestinian Elections: Hamas, Fatah, and the Peace Process  
Israel, Gaza, Lebanon, and Syria: Rockets, Hostages, and Political Ambitions, 2006–2009 
Israel, Syria, and the Gaza Assault
Fanfare and Stalemate: Obama Administration Peace Efforts, 2009–2015 
U.S. Peace Efforts, 2009–2015
Wars and Their Motives: Gaza and Iran’s Nuclear Program Between Conflict and Political Calculations  
Clashing Identities, Intercommunal Violence, and the Struggle for the Temple Mount/al-Haram al-Sharif
Questions for Consideration 

DOCUMENT 11.1 “You’ll Miss Me Yet”: Interview with Marwan Barghouti,
November 9, 2001 
DOCUMENT 11.2 “The Urgent Thing, It Is to Unconditionally Disengage
Ourselves from the Territories”: Interview with Ami Ayalon,
December 22, 2001 
DOCUMENT 11.3 Arab Peace Plan Proposed by Saudi Arabia and Adopted
at Arab League Summit, Beirut, March 27, 2002 
DOCUMENT 11.4 Palestinian-Israeli Polls on Possible Peace Agreements, 2013–2015
DOCUMENT 11.5 Authorized Construction Starts in the West Bank Settlements, 1996-2014
DOCUMENT 11.6 Jerusalem and the Israel-Palestinian Conflict, October 6, 2015 

Selected Bibliography 

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