Of the People A History of the United States, Volume 1: To 1877

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Edition: 3rd
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2015-12-11
Publisher(s): Oxford University Press
List Price: $63.95

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Of the People: A History of the United States, Third Edition, not only tells the history of America--of its people and places, of its dealings and ideals--but it also unfolds the story of American democracy, carefully marking how this country's evolution has been anything but certain, from its complex beginnings to its modern challenges. This comprehensive survey focuses on the social and political lives of people--some famous, some ordinary--revealing the compelling story of America's democracy from an individual perspective, from across the landscapes of diverse communities, and ultimately from within the larger context of the world.

Author Biography

James Oakes, CUNY Graduate Center
Michael McGerr, Indiana University-Bloomington
Jan Ellen Lewis, Rutgers University, Newark
Nick Cullather, Indiana University-Bloomington
Jeanne Boydston, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Mark Summers, University of Kentucky
Camilla Townsend, Rutgers University
Karen Dunak, Muskingum University

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Worlds in Motion, 1450-1550
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Malinche, Cultural Translator
The Worlds of Indian Peoples
Great Migrations
The Emergence of Farming
The Cradle of the Americas
The Northern World Takes Shape
The Worlds of Christopher Columbus
The Reconquista
The Age of Exploration
New Ideas Take Root
Collision in the Caribbean
Columbus's First Voyage
The Origins of a New World Political and Economic Order
The Division of the World
Onto the Mainland
The First Florida Ventures
The Conquest of Mexico
DEMOCRACY: Native Americans Debate the Question of the Europeans
The Establishment of a Spanish Empire
The Return to North America
The Consequences of Conquest
Demographic Disaster
The Columbian Exchange
Men's and Women's Lives

Chapter 1 Primary Sources
1. The Aztecs Address Their Gods
2. The People of Chaco Canyon Build a Town
3. The King and Queen of Spain Give Authorization to Columbus
4. Native Priests Respond to the Spanish
5. Cabeza de Vaca Describes North America

Chapter 2: Colonial Outposts, 1550-1650
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Paquiquineo Finds His Way Home
Pursuing Wealth and Glory Along the North American Shore
European Objectives
The Huge Geographical Barrier
Spanish Outposts
New France: An Outpost in Global Politics and Economics
The Five Nations of Iroquois and the Political Landscape
Champlain Encounters the Hurons
Creating a Middle Ground in New France
DEMOCRACY: The French and the Indians Learn to Compromise
An Outpost in a Global Political Economy
New Netherland: The Empire of a Trading Nation
Colonization by a Private Company
Slavery and Freedom in New Netherland
The Dutch-Indian Trading Partnership
The Beaver Wars
England Attempts an Empire
Competition with Spain
Rehearsal in Ireland
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Indians on the Thames
The Roanoke Venture
The Abandoned Colony

Chapter 2 Primary Sources
1. Paquiquineo Travels the World
2. William Hawkins Brings Brazilians to London
3. Gandeaktena Becomes a Christian
4. The Dutch Arrive at Manhattan

Chapter 3: The English Come to Stay, 1600-1660
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: The Adventures of John Smith
The First Chesapeake Colonies
Founding Virginia
Starving Times
Troubled Relations with the Powhatans
Toward a New Economic Order and the Rise of Democracy
Toward the Destruction of the Powhatans
A New Colony in Maryland
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: The English Enter the Slave Trade
The Political Economy of Slavery Emerges
The Problem of a Labor Supply
The Origins of African Slavery in the Chesapeake
DEMOCRACY: The First African Arrivals Exercise Some Rights
Gender and the Social Order in the Chesapeake
A Bible Commonwealth in the New England Wilderness
The English Origins of the Puritan Movement
What Did the Puritans Believe?
The Pilgrim Colony at Plymouth
The Puritan Colony at Massachusetts Bay
The New England Way
Changing the Landscape to Fit the Political Economy
The Puritan Family
Dissension in the Puritan Ranks
Roger Williams and Toleration
Anne Hutchinson and the Equality of Believers
Puritan Indian Policy and the Pequot War

Chapter 3 Primary Sources
1. John Smith Visits Powhatan
2. Richard Frethorne Writes Home from America
3. Anne Hutchinson Comes to Trial
4. Anne Bradstreet Writes to Her Children

Chapter 4: Continental Empires, 1660-1720
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Tituba Shapes Her World and Saves Herself
The Plan of Empire
Turmoil in England
The Political Economy of Mercantilism
New Colonies, New Patterns
New Netherland Becomes New York
Diversity and Prosperity in Pennsylvania
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: New Amsterdam/New York
Indians and Africans in the Political Economy of Carolina
The Barbados Connection
The Transformation of Virginia
Social Change in Virginia
Bacon's Rebellion and the Abandonment of the Middle Ground
Virginia Becomes a Slave Society
New England Under Assault
Social Prosperity and the Fear of Religious Decline
King Philip's War
Indians and the Empire
The Empire Strikes
The Dominion of New England
The Glorious Revolution in Britain and America
DEMOCRACY: Maryland's Colonists Demand a New Government
The Rights of Englishmen
Conflict in the Empire
Massachusetts in Crisis
The Social and Cultural Contexts of Witchcraft
Witchcraft at Salem
The End of Witchcraft
Empires in Collision
France Attempts an Empire
The Spanish Outpost in Florida
Conquest, Revolt, and Reconquest in New Mexico
Native Americans and the Country Between

Chapter 4 Primary Sources
1. The Navigation Act of 1651
2. William Penn Meets with Indians
3. Mary Rowlandson is Kidnapped
4. The Pueblo Indians Eject the Spaniards
5. The Puritans Face a Crisis

Chapter 5: The Eighteenth-Century World, 1700-1775
AMERICANPORTRAIT: George Whitefield: Evangelist for a Consumer Society
The Population Explosion of the Eighteenth Century
The Dimensions of Population Growth
Bound for America: European Immigrants
Bound for America: African Slaves
The Great Increase of Offspring
The Transatlantic Economy: Producing and Consuming
The Nature of Colonial Economic Growth
The Transformation of the Family Economy
Sources of Regional Prosperity
Merchants and Dependent Laborers in the Transatlantic Economy
Consumer Choices and the Creation of Gentility
The Varieties of Colonial Experience
Creating an Urban Public Sphere
The Diversity of Urban Life
The Maturing of Rural Society
The World That Slavery Made
Georgia: From Frontier Outpost to Plantation Society
The Head and the Heart in America: The Enlightenment and Religious Awakening
The Ideas of the Enlightenment
The Economic and Social Foundations of Democracy
Enlightened Institutions
DEMOCRACY: Books Become More Accessible
Origins of the Great Awakening
The Grand Itinerant
Cultural Conflict and Challenges to Authority
What the Awakening Wrought

Chapter 5 Primary Sources
1. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
2. The Autobiography of Sansom Occum
3. Olaudah Equiano's Autobiography
4. George Whitefield Experiences South Carolina
5. Phyllis Wheatley Responds to the Students at Harvard

Chapter 6: Conflict in the Empire, 1713-1774
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Susannah Willard Johnson Experiences the Empire
The Victory of the British Empire
New War, Old Pattern
The Local Impact of Global War
The French Empire Crumbles from Within
The Virginians Ignite a War
From Local to Imperial War
Problems with British-Colonial Cooperation
The British Gain the Advantage
Enforcing the Empire
Pontiac's Rebellion and Its Aftermath
Paying for the Empire: Sugar and Stamps
The British Empire in Crisis
An Argument About Rights and Obligations
The Imperial Crisis in Local Context
Contesting the Townshend Duties
A Revolution in the Empire
"Massacre" in Boston
The Empire Comes Apart
The First Continental Congress

Chapter 6 Primary Sources
1. George Washington on Braddock's Defeat
2. Pontiac's Speech to the Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Hurons
3. An Account of the Paxton Boys' Murder of the Conestoga Indians
4. A Visiting Frenchman's Account of Patrick Henry's Caesar-Brutus Speech
5. Peter Oliver on Non-importation
6. The Intolerable Acts

Chapter 7: Creating a New Nation, 1775-1788
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: James Madison Helps Make a Nation
The War Begins
The First Battles
Congress Takes the Lead
Military Ardor
Declaring Independence
Creating a National Government
Creating State Governments
Winning the Revolution
Competing Strategies
The British on the Offensive: 1776
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Mercenaries in Global Perspective
A Slow War: 1777-1781
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: The South Carolina Backcountry
Securing a Place in the World
The Challenge of the Revolution
The Departure of the Loyalists
The Challenge of the Economy
Contesting the New Economy
Can Women Be Citizens?
The Challenge of Slavery
A New Policy in the West
The Indians' Revolution
The End of the Middle Ground
Settling the West
Creating a New National Government
A Crippled Congress
Writing a New Constitution
Ratifying the Constitution: Politics
Ratifying the Constitution: Ideas
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Ratification of the Constitution

Chapter 7 Primary Sources
1. Common Sense
2. Excerpts from A narrative of some of the adventures, dangers and sufferings of a revolutionary soldier
3. "Remember the Ladies"
4. Slave Petition for Freedom to the Massachusetts Legislature
5. Excerpt from Speech to the Virginia Ratifying Convention

Chapter 8: Contested Republic, 1789-1800
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Ona Judge Finds Her Freedom
The Struggle to Form a Government
Creating a National Government
The States and the Bill of Rights
Debating the Economy
A Society in Transition
A People on the Move
The First Emancipation Movements
Conflicting Visions of Republican Society
The Culture of the Republic
Securing the Nation
Borders and Boundaries
Controlling the Borderlands
The Whiskey Rebellion
Other Revolutions
Between France and England
To the Brink of War
The Administration of John Adams
Tensions at Home
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Sedition and the Limits of Dissent

Chapter 8 Primary Sources
1. Report on Manufactures
2. Washington's Farewell Address
3. Congressman Roger Griswold attacks Congressman Matthew Lyon
4. Immigration Policies
5. The Virginia Act and the Kentucky Act
6. "An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery," New York

Chapter 9: A Republic in Transition, 1800-1819
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Andrew Jackson's America
A Politics of Transition
A Contested Election, an Anxious Nation
Democratic Republicans in Office
The Louisiana Purchase
The War of 1812
Madison and the War
Federalist Response
An Economy in Transition
International Markets
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: The United States in China
Crossing the Appalachian Mountains
Invention and Exploration
Early Industrial Society in New England
The Rule of Law and Lawyers
Ways of Life in Flux
Indian Resistance to American Expansion
Winners and Losers in the New Economy
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Religion in the Backcountry: Cane Ridge, Kentucky
The Problem of Trust in a Changing Society
The Panic of 1819

Chapter 9 Primary Sources
1. Jefferson's First Inaugural Address
2. Samuel Mitchill Describes to his Wife Aaron Burr's Farewell Speech to the Senate
3. War Hawk Tennessee Congressman Felix Grundy's Predictions about the War of 1812
4. Constitution of the Lowell Factory Girls Association
5. Gibbons v. Ogden
6. Thomas Jefferson's Letter to William Henry Harrison

CHAPTER 10: Jacksonian Democracy, 1820-1840
A New National Politics
Changes in the Democratic Republican Party
James Monroe and National Republicanism
The Missouri Compromise
The Election of 1824 and the "Corrupt Bargain"
The Adams Presidency and the Gathering Forces of Democracy
The Social and Political Bases of Jacksonian Democracy
Free Labor
Suffrage Reform
Opposition to Special Privilege and Secret Societies
Southern Slavery
"Property in Man"
The Domestic Slave Trade
Plantation Slavery
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Gowrie: The Story of Profit and Loss on an American Plantation
Other Varieties of Slavery
Resistance and Creation Among Southern Slaves
Slavery and National Development
Slavery and Industrialization in the North
Slavery and the Laws of the Nation
Free Black People in a Republic of Slaves
Jacksonian Democracy in Action
The Election of 1828
The Bank War
Dismembering the Bank
The Specie Act
A Policy of Removing Indigenous People
Jackson and Native Peoples
The Removal Act
History, Destiny, and the Remaking of Indian Societies
The Growth of Sectional Tension
The Sources of Southern Discontent
South Carolina's Protest
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Federal Government Responds to Abolitionism
The Nullification Crisis

Chapter 10 Primary Sources
1. Monroe Doctrine
2. David Walker's "Appeal"
3. Debate in the Senate on the Admission of Missouri into the Union
4. Andrew Jackson's Vetoes the Recharter of the Second Bank of the United States
5. Andrew Jackson's Speech to Congress on Indian Removal

Chapter 11: Reform and Conflict, 1820-1848
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Charles Grandison Finney
Perfectionism and the Theology of Human Striving
Millennialism and Communitarians
The Benevolent Empire
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
The Politics of Slavery
The Antislavery Movement
Black Abolitionists
Antiabolition Violence
The Emergence of Political Abolitionism
Freedom National, Slavery Local
Reform and the Urban Classes
Wage Dependency and Labor Protest
A New Urban Middle Class
Immigration and Nativism
Internal Migration
Self-Reform and Social Regulation
A Culture of Self-Improvement
The Common School Movement and Democracy
Penal Reform
Electoral Politics and Moral Reform
Women's Rights
Women and Reform Movements
The Seneca Falls Convention
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Seneca Falls Convention

Chapter 11 Primary Sources
1. The First Issue of The Liberator
2. Charles Dickens Describes Five Points
3. Selections from Louisa May Alcott's Transcendental Wild Oats
4. Alexis de Tocqueville on Voluntary Associations
5. An Eyewitness Account of the Murders of Joseph and Hyrum Smith

Chapter 12: Manifest Destiny, 1836-1848
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Elias Boudinot Dies in Oklahoma
The Decline of Jacksonianism
Political Parties in Crisis
Van Buren and the Legacy of Jackson
The Political Economy of the Trans-Mississippi West
Manifest Destiny in Antebellum Culture
Pacific Bound
Nations of the Trans-Mississippi West
Slavery and the Political Economy of Expansion
Log Cabins and Hard Cider: The Election of 1840
And Tyler, Too
Occupy Oregon, Annex Texas
War with Mexico
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Lt. Rankin Dilworth in the War with Mexico
DEMOCRACY: Mexicans in California Lose Their Rights

Chapter 12 Primary Sources
1. Chief John Ross Demands Justice
2. The Hudson River School Ennobles the Natural World
3. Lydia Allen Rudd Goes West
4. John O'Sullivan Coins a Term

Chapter 13: The Politics of Slavery, 1848-1860
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Frederick Douglass
The Political Economy of Freedom and Slavery
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: City of Broad Shoulders and Broader Implications: Chicago
A Changing Economy in the North
The Slave Economy
The Importance of the West
Slavery Becomes a Political Issue
Wilmot Introduces His Proviso
A Compromise Without Compromises
The Fugitive Slave Act Provokes a Crisis
The Election of 1852 and the Decline of the Whig Party
Nativism and the Origins of the Republican Party
The Nativist Attack on Immigration
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Revives the Slavery Issue
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Slavery as a Foreign Policy
A New Political Party Takes Shape
The Labor Problem and the Politics of Slavery
Kansas Begins to Bleed
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Settling and Unsettling of Kansas
The First Sectional Election
The Dred Scott Decision
The Lecompton Constitution Splits the Democratic Party
The "Irrepressible" Conflict
The Retreat from Union
John Brown's War Against Slavery
Northerners Elect a President

Chapter 13 Primary Sources
1. Sumner Denounces the "Crime Against Kansas" and Senator Andrew P. Butler's Defense of the Southern Case
2. John Greenleaf Whittier Describes the Perverting Effect of Cotton
3. A Norwegian Immigrant Describes Life on the Prairies
4. Senator James H. Hammond's "Cotton is King" Speech

Chapter 14: A War for Union and Emancipation, 1861-1865
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Laura M. Towne and the Sea Island Invasion
Liberty and Union
The Deep South Secedes
The Upper South Makes Its Choice
Civilians Demand a Total War
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Citizen Soldier Learns a Profession
What Were Soldiers Fighting For?
Mobilizing for War
The Military Scorecard
Union Naval Supremacy
King Cotton's Failed Diplomacy
The Political Economy of Total War
Filling the Ranks - and the Jails
The Civil War as Social Revolution
Union Victories in the West
Richmond Is a Hard Road to Travel
A New Birth of Freedom
The Turn of the Tide - Gettysburg and Vicksburg
Emancipation in Practice
The War at Home
The "Butcher's Bill"
Discontent on both Sides
Union Victory at Terrible Cost
Grant Takes Command
No Turning Back: Hard War in an Election Year
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: "Burnwell": Sherman's March from the Sea and the Long-Term Cost of Devastation
Atlanta to Appomattox
From Emancipation to Abolition
The Meaning of the Civil War

Chapter 14 Primary Sources
1. "Dixie"
2. "The Battle Hymn of the Republic"
3. Walt Whitman Visits Military Hospitals
4. A Black Man Reports on an Antiwar Race Riot in Detroit
5. Henry Clay Work's Rendering of What Freedom Meant for Black Southerners
6. Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address

Chapter 15: Reconstructing a Nation, 1865-1877
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: John M. Dennett Visits a Freedmen's Bureau Court
Wartime Reconstruction
The Meaning of Freedom
Experiments with Free Labor
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan Versus the Wade-Davis Bill
Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867
The Political Economy of Contract Labor
Resistance to Presidential Reconstruction
Congress Clashes with the President
Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment
Congressional Reconstruction
The South Remade
The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson
Radical Reconstruction in the South
Achievements and Failures of Radical Government
The Political Economy of Sharecropping
The Gospel of Prosperity
The Retreat from Republican Radicalism
Republicans Become the Party of Moderation
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Reconstructing America's Foreign Policy
Reconstructing the North
The Fifteenth Amendment and Nationwide African American Suffrage
Women and Suffrage
The Rise and Fall of the National Labor Union
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: An Incident at Coushatta, August 1874
The End of Reconstruction
Corruption is the Fashion
Liberal Republicans Revolt
edeeming" the South
The Twice-Stolen Election of 1876

Chapter 15 Primary Sources
1. Petroleum V. Nasby Finds a Platform for Northern Democrats
2. The Mississippi Black Code Defines Freed People's Rights
3. How Free Is Free? A Sharecropping Contract
4. An Alabama Freedman Remembers Reconstruction
5. Gadsden Steel Testifies about Klan Violence
2. Debating Inequality

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