Of the People A History of the United States, Volume I: To 1877, with Sources

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Edition: 4th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2018-09-14
Publisher(s): Oxford University Press
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Of the People: A History of the United States, Fourth Edition, does more than tell the history of America--of its people and places, of its dealings and ideals. It also unfolds the story of American democracy, carefully marking how this country's evolution has been anything but certain, from its complex beginnings to its modern challenges. This comprehensive survey focuses on the social and political lives of people--some famous, some ordinary--revealing the compelling story of America's democracy from an individual perspective, from across the landscapes of diverse communities, and ultimately from within the larger context of the world.

Author Biography

Michael McGerr is Paul V. McNutt Professor of History at Indiana University-Bloomington.

Jan Ellen Lewis is Professor of History and Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Rutgers University-Newark.

James Oakes is Distinguished Professor of History and Graduate School Humanities Professor at the City University of New York Graduate Center.

Nick Cullather is Professor of History and International Studies at Indiana University-Bloomington.

Jeanne Boydston was Robinson-Edwards Professor of American History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Mark Summers is Thomas D. Clark Professor of History at the University of Kentucky.

Camilla Townsend is Professor of History at Rutgers University.

Karen M. Dunak is Associate Professor of History at Muskingum University.

Table of Contents

New to the Fourth Edition
Hallmark Features
About the Authors

Chapter 1: Worlds in Motion, 1450-1550
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Malinche, Cultural Translator
The Worlds of Indian Peoples
Great Migrations
The Emergence of Farming
The Cradle of the Americas
The Northern World Takes Shape
The Worlds of Christopher Columbus
The Reconquista
The Age of Exploration
New Ideas Take Root
Collision in the Caribbean
Columbus's First Voyage
The Origins of a New World Political and Economic Order
The Division of the World
Onto the Mainland
The First Florida Ventures
The Conquest of Mexico
The Establishment of a Spanish Empire
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Native Americans Debate the Question of the Europeans
The Return to North America
The Consequences of Conquest
Demographic Disaster
The Columbian Exchange
Men's and Women's Lives

Chapter 1 Primary Sources
1.1 Aztec Midwife's Prayer
1.2 Visual Document: Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Pueblo Bonito
1.3 King Fernando and Queen Isabella of Spain, "Granada Capitulations" (1492)
1.4 Aztec Priests, Statement to the Franciscan Friars (1520s)
1.5 Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Describing North America (1535)

Chapter 2: Colonial Outposts, 1550-1650
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Paquiquineo Finds His Way Home
Pursuing Wealth and Glory Along the North American Shore
European Objectives
The Huge Geographical Barrier
Spanish Outposts
New France: An Outpost in Global Politics and Economics
The Five Nations of Iroquois and the Political Landscape
Champlain Encounters the Hurons
Creating a Middle Ground in New France
An Outpost in a Global Political Economy
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The French and the Indians Learn to Compromise
New Netherland: The Empire of a Trading Nation
Colonization by a Private Company
Slavery and Freedom in New Netherland
The Dutch-Indian Trading Partnership
The Beaver Wars
England Attempts an Empire
Competition with Spain
Rehearsal in Ireland
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Indians on the Thames
The Roanoke Venture
The Abandoned Colony

Chapter 2 Primary Sources
2.1 Letter from Fray Pedro de Feria to Phillip II, King of Spain, about Paquiquineo (1563)
2.2 Richard Hakluyt, Excerpt from The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation (1589-1600)
2.3 Father Pierre Cholonec, Life of Kateri (1715)
2.4 John Heckewelder, Account of the Arrival of the Dutch at Manhattan

Chapter 3: The English Come to Stay, 1600-1660
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: The Predicament of Pocahontas, Alias Rebecca
The First Chesapeake Colonies
Founding Virginia
Starving Times
Troubled Relations with the Powhatans
Toward a New Economic Order and the Rise of Democracy
Toward the Destruction of the Powhatans
A New Colony in Maryland
The Political Economy of Slavery Emerges
The Problem of a Labor Supply
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: The English Enter the Slave Trade
The Origins of African Slavery in the Chesapeake
Gender and the Social Order in the Chesapeake
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The First African Arrivals Exercise Some Rights
A Bible Commonwealth in the New England Wilderness
The English Origins of the Puritan Movement
What Did the Puritans Believe?
The Pilgrim Colony at Plymouth
The Puritan Colony at Massachusetts Bay
The New England Way
Changing the Landscape to Fit the Political Economy
The Puritan Family
Dissension in the Puritan Ranks
Roger Williams and Toleration
Anne Hutchinson and the Equality of Believers
Puritan Indian Policy and the Pequot War

Chapter 3 Primary Sources
3.1 Edward Waterhouse's Report on the Uprising of 1622
3.2 Letter from Richard Frethorne to His Parents About Life in Virginia (1623)
3.3 Excerpts from Anne Hutchinson's Trial Transcript (1637)
3.4 Letter from Anne Bradstreet to Her Children (Undated)

Chapter 4: Continental Empires, 1660-1720
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Mercy Lewis Learns to Fear the Devil
The Plan of Empire
Turmoil in England
The Political Economy of Mercantilism
New Colonies, New Patterns
New Netherland Becomes New York
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: New Amsterdam/New York
Diversity and Prosperity in Pennsylvania
Indians and Africans in the Political Economy of Carolina
The Barbados Connection
The Transformation of Virginia
Social Change in Virginia
Bacon's Rebellion and the Abandonment of the Middle Ground
Virginia Becomes a Slave Society
New England Under Assault
Social Prosperity and the Fear of Religious Decline
King Philip's War
Indians and the Empire
The Empire Strikes
The Dominion of New England
The Glorious Revolution in Britain and America
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Maryland's Colonists Demand a New Government
The Rights of Englishmen
Conflict in the Empire
Massachusetts in Crisis
The Social and Cultural Contexts of Witchcraft
Witchcraft at Salem
The End of Witchcraft
Empires in Collision
France Attempts an Empire
The Spanish Outpost in Florida
Conquest, Revolt, and Reconquest in New Mexico
Native Americans and the Country Between

Chapter 4 Primary Sources
4.1 The Navigation Act of 1651
4.2 Letter from William Penn to His Backers (1683)
4.3 Mary Rowlandson, Excerpts from The Sovereignty and Goodness of God (1682)
4.4 Declaration of a Pueblo Indian Captured by the Spaniards (1680)
4.5 Robert Calef, Excerpts from More Wonders of the Invisible World (1700)

Chapter 5: The Eighteenth-Century World, 1700-1775
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Young Alexander Hamilton: One Immigrant's Story
The Population Explosion of the Eighteenth Century
The Dimensions of Population Growth
Bound for America: European Immigrants
Bound for America: African Slaves
The Great Increase of Offspring
The Transatlantic Economy: Producing and Consuming
The Nature of Colonial Economic Growth
The Transformation of the Family Economy
Sources of Regional Prosperity
Merchants and Dependent Laborers in the Transatlantic Economy
Consumer Choices and the Creation of Gentility
The Varieties of Colonial Experience
Creating an Urban Public Sphere
The Diversity of Urban Life
The Maturing of Rural Society
The World That Slavery Made
Georgia: From Frontier Outpost to Plantation Society
The Head and the Heart in America: The Enlightenment and Religious Awakening
The Ideas of the Enlightenment
The Economic and Social Foundations of Democracy
Enlightened Institutions
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Books Become More Accessible
Origins of the Great Awakening
The Grand Itinerant
Cultural Conflict and Challenges to Authority
What the Awakening Wrought

Chapter 5 Primary Sources
5.1 Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (1771-1790)
5.2 Sansom Occum, Excerpts from A Short Narrative of My Life (1768)
5.3 Olaudah Equiano, Excerpts from The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings (1789)
5.4 George Whitefield, Account of a Visit to Georgia (1738)
5.5 Phyllis Wheatley, "To the University of Cambridge, in New England" (1773)

Chapter 6: Conflict in the Empire, 1713-1774
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Susannah Willard Johnson Experiences the Empire
The Victory of the British Empire
New War, Old Pattern
The Local Impact of Global War
The French Empire Crumbles from Within
The Virginians Ignite a War
From Local to Imperial War
Problems with British-Colonial Cooperation
The British Gain the Advantage
Enforcing the Empire
Pontiac's Rebellion and Its Aftermath
Paying for the Empire: Sugar and Stamps
The British Empire in Crisis
An Argument About Constitutional Government
The Imperial Crisis in Local Context
The Theory and Practice of Resistance
A Revolution in the Empire
"Massacre" in Boston
The Empire Comes Apart
The First Continental Congress

Chapter 6 Primary Sources
6.1 Letter from George Washington to Robert Dinwidde, Governor of Virginia (1755)
6.2 Pontiac's Speech to the Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Hurons (1763)
6.3 Benjamin Franklin, Excerpts from "A Narrative of the Late Massacres" (1764)
6.4 A Visiting Frenchman's Account of Patrick Henry's Caesar-Brutus Speech (1765)
6.5 The Stamp Act Riots: The Destruction of Thomas Hutchinson's House (1765)
6.6 The Intolerable Acts (1774)

Chapter 7: Creating a New Nation, 1775-1788
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Abigail Adams and the Wartime Economy
The War Begins
The First Battles
Congress Takes the Lead
Military Ardor
Declaring Independence
Creating a National Government
Creating State Governments
Winning the Revolution
Competing Strategies
The British on the Offensive: 1776
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Mercenaries in Global Perspective
A Slow War: 1777-1781
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: The South Carolina Backcountry
Securing a Place in the World
The Challenge of the Revolution
The Departure of the Loyalists
The Challenge of the Economy
Contesting the New Economy
Can Women Be Citizens?
The Challenge of Slavery
A New Policy in the West
The Indians' Revolution
The End of the Middle Ground
Settling the West
A Government of the People
A Crippled Congress
Writing a New Constitution
Ratifying the Constitution: Politics
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Ratification of the Constitution
Ratifying the Constitution: Ideas

Chapter 7 Primary Sources
7.1 Thomas Paine, Common Sense (1776)
7.2 Alexander Hamilton Recommends Arming Slaves and George Washington Rejects the Idea (1779)
7.3 Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams (1776)
7.4 Slave Petition for Freedom to the Massachusetts Legislature (1777)
7.5 Patrick Henry, Excerpt from Speech to the Virginia Ratifying Convention (1788)

Chapter 8: Contested Republic, 1789-1800
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Ona Judge Finds Her Freedom
The Struggle to Form a Government
Creating a National Government
The States and the Bill of Rights
Debating the Economy
A Society in Transition
A People on the Move
The First Emancipation Movements
Conflicting Visions of Republican Society
The Culture of the Republic
Securing the Nation
Borders and Boundaries
Controlling the Borderlands
The Whiskey Rebellion
Democratic Revolutions
Between France and England
To the Brink of War
The Administration of John Adams
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Sedition and the Limits of Dissent
Tensions at Home

Chapter 8 Primary Sources
8.1 Alexander Hamilton, Report on Manufactures (1791)
8.2 Thomas Jefferson's Letter to Philip Mazzei (1796)
8.3 George Washington, Farewell Address (1796)
8.4 The House of Representatives, Testimony of Congressman S. Sitgreaves (1798) and Visual Document: Engraving, "Congressional Pugilists" (1798)
8.5 United States Congress, "An act to establish an uniform rule of naturalization" (1790) and an Act Respecting Alien Enemies (1798)
8.6 The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798-1799)
8.7 Excerpts from "An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery," in Laws of the State of New York, 22nd Session (1799)

Chapter 9: A Republic in Transition, 1800-1819
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Andrew Jackson: A Man of the People
A Politics of Transition
A Contested Election, an Anxious Nation
Democratic Republicans in Office
The Louisiana Purchase
The War of 1812
Madison and the War
Federalist Response
An Economy in Transition
International Markets
Crossing the Appalachian Mountains
Invention and Exploration
Early Industrial Society in New England
The Rule of Law and Lawyers
Ways of Life in Flux
Indian Resistance to American Expansion
Winners and Losers in the New Economy
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Religion in the Backcountry: Cane Ridge, Kentucky
The Problem of Trust in a Changing Society
The Panic of 1819

Chapter 9 Primary Sources
9.1 Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address (1801)
9.2 Samuel Mitchill, Account of Aaron Burr's Farewell Speech to the Senate (1805)
9.3 Felix Grundy, Predictions About the War of 1812
9.4 Constitution of the Lowell Factory Girls Association (1834)
9.5 Elder David Purviance's Description of the Cane Ridge Revival (1801)
9.6 Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Henry Harrison (1803)

Chapter 10: Jacksonian Democracy, 1820-1840
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: John Ross and the Limits of Democracy
A New National Politics
Changes in the Democratic Republican Party
James Monroe and National Republicanism
The Missouri Compromise
The Election of 1824 and the "Corrupt Bargain"
The Adams Presidency and the Gathering Forces of Democracy
The Social and Political Bases of Jacksonian Democracy
Free Labor
Suffrage Reform
Opposition to Special Privilege and Secret Societies
Southern Slavery
"Property in Man"
The Domestic Slave Trade
Plantation Slavery
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Gowrie: The Story of Profit and Loss on an American Plantation
Other Varieties of Slavery
Resistance and Creation Among Southern Slaves
Slavery and National Development
Slavery and Industrialization in the North
Slavery and the Laws of the Nation
Free Black People in a Republic of Slavery
Jacksonian Democracy in Action
The Election of 1828
The Bank War
Dismembering the Bank
The Specie Act
A Policy of Removing Indigenous People
Jackson and Native Peoples
The Removal Act
History, Destiny, and the Remaking of Indian Societies
The Growth of Sectional Tension
The Sources of Southern Discontent
South Carolina's Protest
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Federal Government Responds to Abolitionism
The Nullification Crisis

Chapter 10 Primary Sources
10.1 David Walker, Excerpts from "Walker's Appeal" (1829)
10.2 Rufus King, Excerpts from The Substance of Two Speeches Delivered in the Senate of the United States, on the Subject of the Missouri Bill (1820) and William Pinkney, Excerpts from His Response on the Missouri Question (1820)
10.3 Andrew Jackson, Excerpts from Bank Veto Message (1832) and Visual Document: H.R. Robinson, "General Jackson Slaying the Many Headed Monster" (1836)
10.4 Andrew Jackson, Message to Congress "On Indian Removal" (1830)
10.5 Frances Kemble's Journal (1838-1839)

Chapter 11: Reform and Conflict, 1820-1848
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Sarah and Angelina Grimké
Perfectionism and the Theology of Human Striving
Millennialism and Communitarians
The Benevolent Empire
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Frederick Douglass Tours the British Isles
The Politics of Slavery
The Antislavery Movement
Black Abolitionists
Antiabolition Violence
The Emergence of Political Abolitionism
Freedom National, Slavery Local
Reform and the Urban Classes
Wage Dependency and Labor Protest
A New Urban Middle Class
Immigration and Nativism
Internal Migration
Self-Reform and Social Regulation
A Culture of Self-Improvement
The Common School Movement and Democracy
Penal Reform
Electoral Politics and Moral Reform
Women's Rights
Women and Reform Movements
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Seneca Falls Convention
The Seneca Falls Convention

Chapter 11 Primary Sources
11.1 William Lloyd Garrison, Excerpt from the First Issue of The Liberator (1831)
11.2 Angelina Grimké, Excerpt from An Appeal to the Women of the Nominally Free States (1838)
11.3 Louisa May Alcott, Excerpts from "Transcendental Wild Oats" (1873)
11.4 Alexis de Tocqueville, Excerpts from Democracy in America: Volume II (1840)
11.5 John Taylor, Account of the Murders of Joseph and Hyrum Smith (1844)

Chapter 12: Manifest Destiny, 1836-1848
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Elias Boudinot Dies in Oklahoma
The Decline of Jacksonianism
Political Parties in Crisis
Van Buren and the Legacy of Jackson
The Political Economy of the Trans-Mississippi West
Manifest Destiny in Antebellum Culture
Pacific Bound
Nations of the Trans-Mississippi West
Slavery and the Political Economy of Expansion
Log Cabins and Hard Cider: The Election of 1840
And Tyler, Too
Occupy Oregon, Annex Texas
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: John Riley and the Mexican War
War with Mexico
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Mexicans in California Lose Their Rights

Chapter 12 Primary Sources
12.1 Chief John Ross, The Petition and Memorial of the Delegates and Representatives of the Cherokee Nation (1840)
12.2 Visual Document: Thomas Cole, Landscape (1825); Frederic Edwin Church, Niagara Falls (1857); Louis Rémy Mignot, Landscape in Ecuador (1859)
12.3 Lydia Allen Rudd, Account of Westward Journey (1852)
12.4 John O'Sullivan, "Annexation" (1845)
12.5 María Amparo Ruiz de Burton, The Squatter and the Don (1885)

Chapter 13: The Politics of Slavery, 1848-1860
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Frederick Douglass
The Political Economy of Freedom and Slavery
A Changing Economy in the North
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: City of Broad Shoulders and Broader Implications: Chicago
The Slave Economy
The Importance of the West
Slavery Becomes a Political Issue
Wilmot Introduces His Proviso
A Compromise Without Compromises
The Fugitive Slave Act Provokes a Crisis
The Election of 1852 and the Decline of the Whig Party
Nativism and the Origins of the Republican Party
The Nativist Attack on Immigration
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Revives the Slavery Issue
The Labor Problem and the Politics of Slavery
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Slavery as a Foreign Policy
"Bleeding Kansas"
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Settling and Unsettling of Kansas
A New Political Party Takes Shape
The First Sectional Election
The Dred Scott Decision
The Lecompton Constitution Splits the Democratic Party
The "Irrepressible" Conflict
The Retreat from Union
John Brown's War Against Slavery
Northerners Elect a President

Chapter 13 Primary Sources
13.1 John Greenleaf Whittier, "The Haschish" (1854)
13.2 Frithjof Meidell, Account of Life on the Prairies (1855)
13.3 James H. Hammond, "Speech on the Admission of Kansas" (1858)
13.4 Abraham Lincoln, Speech at Springfield, Illinois (1857)

Chapter 14: A War for Union and Emancipation, 1861-1865
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Laura M. Towne and the Sea Island Invasion
Liberty and Union
The Deep South Secedes
The Upper South Makes Its Choice
Civilians Demand a Total War
What Were Soldiers Fighting For?
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Citizen Soldier Learns a Profession
Mobilizing for War
The Military Scorecard
Union Naval Supremacy
King Cotton's Failed Diplomacy
The Political Economy of Total War
Filling the Ranks-and the Jails
Sinews of War
The Civil War as Social Revolution
Union Victories in the West
Richmond Is a Hard Road to Travel
A New Birth of Freedom
The Turn of the Tide-Gettysburg and Vicksburg
Emancipation in Practice
The War at Home
The "Butcher's Bill"
Discontent on Both Sides
Union Victory at Terrible Cost
Grant Takes Command
No Turning Back: Hard War in an Election Year
Atlanta to Appomattox
AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: "Burnwell": Sherman's March from the Sea and the Long-Term Cost of Devastation
From Emancipation to Abolition
The Meaning of the Civil War

Chapter 14 Primary Sources
14.1 John Sherman, A Letter on the Crisis to Philadelphians (1860)
14.2 Julia Ward Howe, "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" (1862)
14.3 Cornelia Hancock, Letter to Her Sister (1863)
14.4 John Beauchamp Jones Observes the Deterioration on the Confederate Home Front (1863-1864)
14.5 Henry Clay Work, "Kingdom Coming" (1862)
14.6 Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address (1865)

Chapter 15: Reconstructing a Nation, 1865-1877
AMERICAN PORTRAIT: John Dennett Visits a Freedmen's Bureau Court
Wartime Reconstruction
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan Versus the Wade-Davis Bill
The Meaning of Freedom
Experiments with Free Labor
Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867
The Political Economy of Contract Labor
Resistance to Presidential Reconstruction
Congress Clashes with the President
Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment
Congressional Reconstruction
The South Remade
The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson
Radical Reconstruction in the South
Achievements and Failures of Radical Government
The Political Economy of Sharecropping
The Gospel of Prosperity
A Counterrevolution of Terrorism and Economic Pressure
AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Reconstructing America's Foreign Policy
A Reconstructed West
The Overland Trail
The Origins of Indian Reservations
The Destruction of Indian Subsistence
The Retreat from Republican Radicalism
Republicans Become the Party of Moderation
Reconstructing the North
The Fifteenth Amendment and Nationwide African American Suffrage
Women and Suffrage
The End of Reconstruction
Corruption Is the Fashion
Liberal Republicans Revolt
"Redeeming" the South
STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: An Incident at Coushatta, August 1874
The Twice-Stolen Election of 1876
Sharecropping Becomes Wage Labor

Chapter 15 Primary Sources
15.1 Petroleum V. Nasby [David Ross Locke], A Platform for Northern Democrats (1865)
15.2 Mississippi Black Code (1865)
15.3 Sharecropping Contract Between Alonzo T. Mial and Fenner Powell (1886)
15.4 Joseph Farley, An Account of Reconstruction
15.5 A Southern Unionist Judge's Daughter Writes the President for Help (1874)
15.6 Red Cloud Pleads the Plains Indians' Point of View at Cooper Union (1870)

Appendix A. Historical Documents
The Declaration of Independence
The Constitution of the United States of America
Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
Appendix B. Historical Facts and Data
US Presidents and Vice Presidents
Admission of States into the Union

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