Readings in Late Antiquity

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Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2000-03-23
Publisher(s): Routledge
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Summary

This fascinating collection draws from Greek, Latin, Syriac, Hebrew, Coptic, Persian, Arabic and Armenian sources, some translated into English for the first time. The perspectives that emerge reveal the rich diversity of late antique cultures. The Roman empire is kept at the center of discussion, with chapters devoted to government, society, army, law, medicine, philosophy, Christianity, polytheism and Jews. Other chapters deal with the societies that surrounded the Roman state: Persia, Huns, Germanic invaders who established new states in the West and Islam. The carefully selected sources present a comprehensive insight into the lives of emperors, abbesses, aristocrats, slaves, soldiers, doctors, lawyers, historians and saints who left a vivid record of their experiences.

Table of Contents

Maps
xxxiii
Introduction li
Acknowledgements liv
Chronology lv
Late antique rulers lix
Permissions lxiv
The Roman Empire
1(68)
Introduction
1(1)
The emperor and the imperial office
2(9)
Cautious advice for an all-powerful monarch
2(1)
The emperor as the source of instability
3(1)
The Christian emperor looks to heaven
4(1)
The emperor as the embodiment of law
5(1)
The emperor's role in war and peace
5(1)
The imperial right to interfere in church affairs
6(1)
The emperor as priest - Justinian's view
6(1)
Challenging imperial interference in church affairs
7(1)
Ruler cult
7(1)
The emperor on parade
8(1)
Imperial acclamations
9(1)
Court ritual
10(1)
Imperial administration
11(8)
Diocletian's reforms
11(1)
Entrance requirements for the bureaucracy
12(1)
The honor of serving the emperor
13(1)
Corruption and suffering in the provinces
13(1)
Bishops in the imperial administration
14(1)
An able emperor relies on his advisory council
15(1)
A top official's close ties to the monarch
16(1)
A hierarchy of administrators supervised by the emperor
17(1)
Access to the emperor for all citizens
18(1)
Patrons are the best protection
18(1)
City administration
19(3)
The importance of decurions
19(1)
The generosity of city senators
19(2)
Praises for a city's patron
21(1)
Imperial administrators and cities
21(1)
A patron from the outside
22(1)
The city of Rome
22(4)
Rome in old age
22(1)
Rome, center of the world
23(1)
Rome's countless wonders
24(1)
Protecting and restoring Rome's buildings
25(1)
A quarry for builders
25(1)
The sack of Rome, AD 410
26(3)
The first shocking news
26(1)
Rome's place in God's plan: the Eusebian background
26(1)
Pagans blame Christians
27(1)
A non-event?
28(1)
Augustine on the sacred significance of Rome
28(1)
Rome becomes a Christian center
29(5)
A martyr foresees Rome's Christian future
29(2)
Rome's temples abandoned
31(1)
Christian citizens of Rome
32(1)
The primacy of the bishop of Rome
33(1)
Constantinople
34(4)
Founding the New Rome
34(1)
Advancing against the East
35(1)
Justinian's Saint Sophia-a temple to rival Solomon's
36(1)
The center of Constantinople
36(2)
City life
38(8)
The individual character of a city: Alexandria
38(1)
Taking a bath
39(1)
The odor of sanctity
39(1)
Spilling blood for entertainment
40(1)
The end of gladiatorial combat
41(1)
The people of Rome expect entertainment
41(1)
Charioteers were public heroes
42(1)
Theodora on stage
42(1)
Belisarius celebrates a triumph
43(1)
Urban rioting
44(1)
An emperor almost falls: the Nika Riots
44(1)
Festivals and calendars
45(1)
Secular and Christian education
46(12)
Educating an elite
46(1)
A teenager's education
46(2)
Training for imperial service
48(1)
Honor your teachers!
48(1)
Should Christian students read the pagan classics?
49(1)
Julian on proper education
50(1)
Christ or Cicero? Jerome's choice
51(1)
Christian curriculum taught on a Roman model-in Syria
52(1)
Interpreting the Bible
52(1)
Preserving classical and Christian learning
53(2)
No place for secular literature
55(1)
Students murder a Christian schoolmaster
55(1)
Reducing teachers' salaries
56(1)
Searching for a teacher: the case of Ananias of Shirak
57(1)
Economic life
58(11)
Natural disasters and local economies
58(1)
Famine
59(1)
The emperor steps in
60(1)
Diocletian's edict on maximum prices
61(2)
Justinian's edict on the regulation of skilled labor
63(1)
Slaves in the law
64(1)
Slavery is taken for granted
65(1)
Slavery, the wage of sin
65(1)
An international trade in humans
66(1)
Parents prevented from selling their children
66(1)
The colonate
67(2)
The Roman Army
69(34)
Introduction
69(2)
Reorganization of the army
71(1)
The decline of border defenses: Constantine's fault?
71(1)
The army in the field
71(11)
Elephants vs. legionaries
71(1)
Guarding the emperor
72(1)
Cavalry-training
73(1)
The navy
74(1)
Border Troops
74(1)
Border forts
75(1)
River frontier patrols
76(1)
Raiding
77(1)
How to establish frontier defense
77(1)
Border defense crumbles away on the Danube
78(1)
The siege of Amida -- a lucky escape
79(1)
Military Medicine
80(1)
The wounded after a battle
81(1)
Rewards after a battle
81(1)
Soldiers within the empire
82(5)
Soldiers protect civilian life
82(1)
Soldiers need discipline
82(1)
An extortion racket in Syria
83(3)
Tax collection
86(1)
Manpower shortages? The problems of recruitment
87(3)
Recruits
87(1)
Sons of soldiers must enlist
88(1)
Enforced recruitment and draft evasion
88(1)
Slaves are permitted to enlist
89(1)
Exemptions from military service
89(1)
Non-Roman recruits
90(7)
Barbarian federates
90(1)
The history of federates
90(1)
Recruiting grounds and imperial borders
91(1)
How were soldiers paid?
91(1)
Strategy, tactics and training
92(1)
Discipline and punishment
93(1)
The rules of war
93(1)
Avoid pitched battles
94(1)
Prayers and battle
94(1)
Military anthropology
95(1)
Billeting
96(1)
Billeting Goths in Edessa
96(1)
Christians in the army
97(6)
The Passion of Saint Marcellus
97(2)
Just war
99(1)
The Christian military vocation
99(1)
Regimental priests
100(1)
Saint Martin won't fight
101(2)
Christianity
103(63)
Introduction
103(1)
Conversions
104(7)
God helps Constantine: ``In this sign you will conquer''
104(1)
``Through divine inspiration''
105(1)
The last Vestal Virgin
105(1)
Antony rejects the world
106(1)
A voice in the garden leads Augustine to conversion
107(1)
Christian peace after a busy public life
107(1)
A Frankish king accepts Catholicism
108(1)
Patrick goes to Ireland
109(2)
Church and state
111(3)
Edict of Milan
111(2)
Massacre at Thessalonica
113(1)
Bishops
114(11)
Bishops as administrators
114(1)
How should a bishop behave?
114(1)
Augustine chooses his successor
115(1)
Giving up a quiet life to become pope
116(1)
Public debate: Augustine vs. a Manichaean
117(1)
Constantine and the bickering bishops
118(2)
Vicious debate at a church council
120(1)
The consequences of losing: Nestorius describes his enemies
120(3)
An apology for differences of opinion among Christians
123(1)
An archbishop's schedule of bribes
123(2)
Legal functions of bishops
125(1)
Theology
125(10)
Arius and the human nature of Christ
125(1)
The Nicene Creed
126(1)
Nestorius' heresy
127(1)
The Council of Chalcedon and Nestorianism
128(1)
Pelagius on salvation
129(1)
Christ's two natures unified
130(1)
Mary and the virgin birth
130(1)
The Tome of Leo
131(1)
The Henotikon of Zeno
132(2)
Justinian on orthodoxy
134(1)
The ``Three Chapters'' controversy
135(1)
Martyrs and relics
135(5)
The martyrdom of Timothy of Gaza
135(1)
Mar Kardagh: a martyr in Persia
136(2)
Relics of martyrs
138(1)
Martyrs in church art
138(1)
Violation of tombs in search of relics
138(1)
Send me the head of Saint Paul!
139(1)
Pilgrimage and Relics
140(6)
Relics in Jerusalem
140(1)
Constantine and Jerusalem's holy sites
141(1)
Paula -- a pious Roman aristocrat in Jerusalem
142(1)
Egeria visits the Cross
142(1)
The Piacenza Pilgrim
143(2)
Heraclius restores the Cross to Jerusalem
145(1)
Asceticism
146(11)
The Devil tempts Antony
146(1)
Simeon the Stylite: public ascetic acts draw crowds
147(2)
The death of Simeon
149(1)
John Cassian's rules for monastic life
150(1)
Benedict on the Twelve Degrees of Humility
151(3)
the difficulities of monastic life
154(1)
Female founders of monasteries
155(1)
Advice to young nuns
156(1)
Monks on a rampage: the destructive side of piety
157(1)
Liturgy and prayer
157(2)
Celebration of the Eucharist
157(1)
Prayers, priests and the people
158(1)
The Akathistos Hymn
158(1)
Calendars and apocalyptic literature
159(5)
No litigation on Sundays
159(1)
``Anno Domini'' -- the Christian calendar begins
159(1)
Providential history
160(1)
Apocalyptic: the oracle of Baalbek
160(2)
Arabs in apocalyptic vision
162(2)
Reading the Bible
164(2)
Translating the Bible
164(2)
Polytheism
166(26)
Introduction
166(1)
Varieties of religious experience
167(10)
A prayer to Hecate
167(1)
Oracles
168(1)
The cult of Isis
168(2)
The mysteries of Attis
170(1)
Sacrificing a bull to Mithras
170(1)
The art and effects of prayer
170(1)
The importance of sacrifice
171(1)
The grave monument of an aristocratic pagan couple in Rome
172(2)
Worship in the countryside
174(1)
The end of the Secular Games
175(1)
Imperial edict against Manichaeism
175(2)
Suppression of polytheism
177(7)
Roman legislation against pagan practices
177(1)
Destroying the temples
178(1)
Christian resentment of pagan sacrifice
179(1)
``Pagan'' residues
180(1)
Churches built on pagan sites: the temple of Zeus Marnas in Gaza (402--7)
181(1)
Saint Nicholas chops down sacred trees
182(1)
Non-religious festivals suppressed
183(1)
Difficulties of conversion
184(8)
Neither pagan nor Christian
184(1)
Tell your peasants what to do
184(1)
Conversion, class and coercion
185(1)
Mass conversions as imperial policy
185(1)
Purge of intellectuals at Constantinople
186(1)
Polytheists fight back
186(1)
Julian the apostate and the Antiochenes
187(1)
Angry at the monks
188(1)
Obstacles to travel
189(1)
Resistance in North Africa
189(1)
The Altar of Victory dispute
190(2)
Jews
192(25)
Introduction
192(1)
Discrimination against Jews in Roman law
193(6)
Jews may not own Christian slaves
193(1)
Jews and Christians may not marry one another
193(1)
Christians may not become Jews
194(1)
Trials in Jewish courts
194(1)
Jews allowed in municipal senates
194(1)
Should translations of the Bible be used in synagogue worship?
195(1)
Discrimination in church law
195(1)
Imperial protectin of the Jewish community: synagogues and property rights
196(1)
The State reserves the right of punishment for itself
197(1)
Ambrose challenges the emperor: the Callinicum affair
197(2)
Julian and the temple in Jerusalem
199(1)
Christian justification of anti-Jewish behavior
199(7)
What did Jews do wrong in Christian eyes?
199(1)
The attraction of Judaism to Christians in condemned
200(1)
Forced conversion
201(2)
Disappointment with a false Messiah -- and conversion
203(1)
Conversion to Islam
204(2)
Jewish resistance
206(2)
Jewish anger at converts
206(1)
Destruction of the symbols of persecution
206(1)
Jews defend Naples in 535
207(1)
Jews help the Persians take Jerusalem
207(1)
Daily life in Jewish communities
208(9)
Self-government
208(1)
Jews lose self-government: the end of the patriarchate
209(1)
Education
209(1)
Interpreting the Law
210(1)
Sabbath worship at sea
210(2)
Legal differences between men and women, c.500
212(1)
Public lives of women
213(1)
Hebrew liturgy in synagogues
213(1)
Mourning the destruction of the Temple
214(1)
Jews in the Islamic world
215(2)
Women
217(21)
Introduction
217(1)
Powerful women
217(3)
Helena -- empress and church benefactor
217(1)
The empress refuses to panic: Theodora during the Nika Riot
218(1)
Aristocratic female virtues
219(1)
Death of a scholar: Hypatia of Alexandria
220(1)
Christianity and women
220(8)
Olympias -- aristocratic habits and spiritual values
220(1)
Melania's generosity
221(1)
Defying family expectations in Ireland
222(1)
Saint Pelagia the Harlot: sin and salvation
223(2)
Tarbo, a Christian martyr in Persia
225(3)
Male attitudes
228(3)
Daughters of Eve
228(1)
The pain of abandoning a concubine
229(1)
Childbirth's pains
230(1)
Abortion and infanticide
230(1)
Exposure of unwanted infants
231(1)
Legal status
231(5)
Marriage and divorce
231(2)
Women's right to divorce
233(1)
Women's right to prosecute in court
233(1)
The new status of celibacy
234(1)
Protecting women
234(1)
Legitimacy and inheritance
235(1)
Women benefit from Roman law
235(1)
The female body
236(2)
Women making babies: a medical view
236(1)
Women's bodies and bearing children
236(2)
Law
238(12)
Introduction
238(6)
What is law?
238(1)
Legal education
239(1)
A hostile view of lawyers
240(2)
Judges must be supervised
242(1)
The right of appeal
242(1)
Law courts closed on Sunday
242(1)
Codifications and reform
243(1)
Jurisprudence
244(1)
Christianity and the law
244(6)
Why is legislation always necessary?
245(1)
Local law dies out
245(1)
The comparison of Roman and Mosaic law
246(1)
The Syro-Roman Law Book
247(3)
Medicine
250(14)
Introduction
250(1)
The medical profession
250(5)
What is medicine?
250(2)
Medical experience vs. received opinion
252(1)
A great physician
253(1)
Military physicians
254(1)
Faith healing
254(1)
A medical specialist
255(1)
Care of the sick and cures
255(5)
Hospitals
255(1)
House calls
256(1)
Baths
257(1)
Magical healing
258(1)
Dieting
258(2)
Plague
260(4)
The Great Plague (542--570)
260(2)
The plague strikes Constantinople
262(1)
Plague in Gaul
262(1)
Farmers avoid plague-ridden cities
263(1)
Philosophy
264(17)
Introduction
264(17)
Plotinus and the ``One''
264(1)
The three hypostases: the One, Nous, and Soul
265(1)
A philosophical life
265(1)
Intellectual beauty and contemplation
266(1)
Julian's hymn to Helios, god of the sun
267(1)
Pythagoras, the guide
268(1)
The art of theurgy
269(1)
The life and education of Proclus
270(3)
Athenian philosophers go to Persia
273(1)
Philoponus and the creation of the world
274(1)
The consolation of philosophy
275(3)
Martianus Capella on the shape of the universe
278(1)
Macrobius on the descent of the soul
278(3)
Persia
281(18)
Introduction
281(18)
The ideal Sasanian monarch
281(3)
The Zoroastrian creed
284(1)
The struggle of light and darkness
285(2)
A trip to Hell and Heaven
287(2)
Expansion of Zoroastrianism
289(1)
Christians in Roman---Persian negotiations
289(1)
The Persians sack Amida
290(2)
The reforms of Khusro Anushirwan
292(1)
Roman hostility in the later sixth century
293(1)
Huns: a common enemy
294(1)
Justinian breaks Persia's silk monopoly
294(1)
The siege of Constantinople in 626
295(1)
Heraclius triumphant
296(1)
The Cross restored to Jerusalem
296(3)
Germanic invaders and successor states
299(19)
Introduction
299(19)
Early Visigothic communities
300(1)
Adrianople: an unexpected catastrophe in 378
300(1)
Destruction of Visigothic draftees
301(1)
Picking up the pieces after Adrianople
302(1)
Improving relations with Rome
303(1)
Settlement of the Goths in Aquitania
303(1)
A Frankish prince
304(1)
An Italian ambassador at the Visigothic court
305(1)
How strange to learn German!
306(1)
Romans deserve their fate! The interpretation of Salvian of Marseilles
307(1)
Theodoric's wise rule in Italy
308(1)
Tensions of acculturation
309(1)
Care for the Roman legacy
310(1)
Vandalism
311(1)
Saint Severinus -- hero of a crumbling frontier
312(1)
The end of Roman Britain
313(1)
``Barbarian'' Law Codes
314(1)
The rise of the Franks
315(3)
Steppe peoples and Slavs
318(17)
Introduction
318(1)
Huns
318(10)
Huns: unknown and terrible invaders
318(2)
Attila at home
320(3)
Attila looks west
323(1)
Why didn't Attila sack Rome?
324(1)
A war of images
325(1)
The death and burial of Attila
325(1)
Hun raiding in the Middle East
326(1)
Huns force Romans and Persians to co-operate
327(1)
Conversion of Huns and imperial ritual
327(1)
Avars
328(3)
Characteristics of Avar society
328(1)
Avars at the Byzantine court
329(1)
Persians and Avars attack Constantinople
330(1)
Turks
331(2)
An embassy to the Turks
331(2)
Slavs
333(2)
A glimpse of early Slavic society
333(2)
Islam
335(21)
Introduction
335(1)
Arabs before Islam
335(4)
Pre-Islamic oral poetry: a death lament
335(1)
Warrior virtues
336(1)
Arab allies of dangerous superpowers
337(1)
Arabian religion before Islam
338(1)
Mubammad and the Quran
339(17)
God and His praise
340(1)
God is transcendent
340(1)
God's judgment
340(1)
God's apostle
341(1)
A criticism of Christianity
341(1)
The prophetic tradition
342(1)
God's message
342(1)
Rewards after death
342(1)
From oral tradition to written text
343(1)
Muhammad's ordinance for Medina
344(1)
The Pact of Umar
345(1)
Rules of war
346(1)
Substitute soldiers
346(1)
Conquest by treaty
347(1)
Jerusalem surrenders, 636
347(1)
A clear choice for Jews: Arabs welcomed to Hebron
348(1)
Christian collusion
349(1)
The new managers
350(1)
Mosques, symbols of imperial power
351(1)
Arabic, the new administrative language
351(1)
Muslims reach Ethiopia
352(1)
Islam in Samaritan eyes
353(1)
An early non-Muslim view of Muhammad
354(1)
Disaster for the Romans
354(2)
Appendix: Late Antiquity on the Web 356(2)
Index of ancient sources 358(6)
Index 364

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