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## Table of Contents

Contents

Chapter 1 Concepts, Definitions, and Basic Principles

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Thermodynamic Systems and Control Volumes

1.3 Macroscopic Description

1.4 Properties and State of a System

1.5 Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Processes

1.6 Units

1.7 Density, Specific Volume, and Specific Weight

1.8 Pressure

1.9 Temperature

1.10 Energy

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 2 Properties of Pure Substances

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The P-v-T Surface

2.3 The Liquid-Vapor Region

2.4 Property Calculations

2.5 The Ideal-Gas Equation of State

2.6 Equations of State for a Nonideal Gas

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 3 Work and Heat

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Definition of Work

3.3 Quasi-Equilibrium Work due to a Moving Boundary

3.4 Nonequilibrium Work

3.5 Other Work Modes

3.6 Heat

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 4 The First Law of Thermodynamics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics Applied to a Cycle

4.3 The First Law Applied to a Process

4.4 Enthalpy

4.5 Latent Heat

4.6 Specific Heats

4.7 The First Law Applied to Various Processes

4.8 General Formulation for Control Volumes

4.9 Applications of the Energy Equation to Control Volumes

4.10 Transient Flow

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators

5.3 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

5.4 Reversibility

5.5 The Carnot Engine

5.6 Carnot Efficiency

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 6 Entropy

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Definition

6.3 Entropy for an Ideal Gas with Constant Specific Heats

6.4 Entropy for an Ideal Gas with Variable Specific Heats

6.5 Entropy for Substances such as Steam, Solids, and Liquids

6.6 The Inequality of Clausius

6.7 Entropy Change for an Irreversible Process

6.8 The Second Law Applied to a Control Volume

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 7 Reversible Work, Irreversibility, and Availability

7.1 Basic Concepts

7.2 Reversible Work and Irreversibility

7.3 Availability and Exergy

7.4 Second-Law Analysis of a Cycle

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Chapter 8 Gas Power Cycles

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Gas Compressors

8.3 The Air-Standard Cycle

8.4 The Carnot Cycle

8.5 The Otto Cycle

8.6 The Diesel Cycle

8.7 The Dual Cycle

8.8 The Stirling and Ericsson Cycles

8.9 The Brayton Cycle

8.10 The Regenerative Brayton Cycle

8.11 The Intercooling, Reheating, Regenerative Brayton Cycle

8.12 The Turbojet Engine

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 9 Vapor Power Cycles

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Rankine Cycle

9.3 Rankine Cycle Efficiency

9.4 The Reheat Cycle

9.5 The Regenerative Cycle

9.6 The Supercritical Rankine Cycle

9.7 Effect of Losses on Power Cycle Efficiency

9.8 The Combined Brayton-Rankine Cycle

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 10 Refrigeration Cycles

10.1 Introduction

10.2 The Vapor Refrigeration Cycle

10.3 The Multistage Vapor Refrigeration Cycle

10.4 The Heat Pump

10.5 The Absorption Refrigeration Cycle

10.6 The Gas Refrigeration Cycle

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 11 Thermodynamic Relations

11.1 Three Differential Relations

11.2 The Maxwell Relations

11.3 The Clapeyron Equation

11.4 Further Consequences of the Maxwell Relations

11.5 Relationships Involving Specific Heats

11.6 The Joule-Thomson Coefficient

11.7 Enthalpy, Internal Energy, and Entropy Changes of Real Gases

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Chapter 12 Mixtures and Psychrometrics

12.1 Basic Definitions

12.2 Ideal-Gas Law for Mixtures

12.3 A Mixture of Ideal Gases

12.4 Air-Vapor Mixtures: Psychrometry

12.5 Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

12.6 The Psychrometric Chart

12.7 Air-Conditioning Processes

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Review Questions for the FE Examination

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Answers to Review Questions for the FE Examination

Chapter 13 Combustion

13.1 Combustion Equations

13.2 Enthalpy of Formation, Enthalpy of Combustion, and the First Law

13.3 Adiabatic Flame Temperature

Solved Problems

Supplementary Problems

Answers to Supplementary Problems

Sample Exams for a Semester Course for Engineering Students

Exam No. 1

Exam No. 2

Exam No. 3

Final Exam

Appendix A Conversions of Units

Appendix B Material Properties

Appendix C Properties of Water (Steam Tables)

Appendix D Properties of R134a

Appendix E Ideal-Gas Tables

Appendix F Psychrometric Charts

Appendix G Compressibility Chart

Appendix H Enthalpy Departure Charts

Appendix I Entropy Departure Charts

Index

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