Spss Statistics for Dummies

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Edition: 4th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2020-09-09
Publisher(s): For Dummies
List Price: $34.99

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The fun and friendly guide to mastering IBM’s Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

Written by an author team with a combined 45 years of experience using SPSS, this updated guide takes the guesswork out of the subject and helps you get the most out of using the leader in predictive analysis.

Covering the latest release and updates to SPSS 25.0, and including over 100 pages of basic statistical theory, it helps you understand the mechanics behind the calculations, perform predictive analysis, produce informative graphs, and more. You’ll even dabble in programming as you expand SPSS functionality to suit your specific needs. 

  • Master the fundamental mechanics of SPSS
  • Learn how to get data into and out of the program
  • Graph and analyze your data more accurately and efficiently
  • Program SPSS with Command Syntax, Python, and scripts 

Get ready to start handling data like a pro—with step-by-step instruction and expert advice!


Author Biography

Jesus Salcedo is an independent statistical and data-mining consultant who has been using SPSS products for more than 25 years. He has written numerous SPSS courses and trained thousands of users. Keith McCormick has been all over the world training and consulting in all things SPSS, statistics, and data mining. He now authors courses on the LinkedIn Learning platform and coaches executives on how to effectively manage their analytics teams.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

About This Book 1

About the Fourth Edition 2

Foolish Assumptions 2

Icons Used in This Book 3

Beyond the Book 3

Where to Go from Here 3

Part 1: Getting Started with SPSS 5

Chapter 1: Introducing SPSS 7

SPSS’s Job, Our Job, and Your Job 7

SPSS’s job 8

Our job 8

Your job 9

Garbage In, Garbage Out: Recognizing the Importance of Good Data 9

Talking to SPSS: Can You Hear Me Now? 12

The graphical user interface 12

Syntax 12

Programmability 13

How SPSS works 13

Getting Help When You Need It 15

Chapter 2: Finding the Best SPSS for You 17

Campus Editions 19

Subscription Plans 20

Commercial Editions 22

What’s New in Version 27 24

Chapter 3: Getting to Know SPSS by Running a Simple Session 25

Opening a Dataset 25

Running an Analysis 27

Interpreting Results 30

Creating Graphs 33

Investigating Data 37

Part 2: Getting Data into and out of SPSS 43

Chapter 4: Understanding SPSS Data: Defining Metadata 45

Entering Variable Definitions on the Variable View Tab 46

Name 47

Type 47

Width 51

Decimals 52

Label 52

Values 53

Missing 54

Columns 55

Align 55

Measure 55

Role 56

Entering and Viewing Data Items on the Data View Tab 56

Chapter 5: Opening Data Files 59

Getting Acquainted with the SPSS File Format 59

Reading Simple Data from a Text File 60

Transferring Data from Another Program 65

Reading an Excel file 67

Reading from an unknown program type 68

Saving Data 69

Chapter 6: Getting Data and Results from SPSS 71

Exporting Data to Another Program 71

Navigating SPSS Statistics Viewer 72

Moving SPSS Output to Other Applications 74

Copying and pasting output 74

Exporting output 75

Printing Data 80

Chapter 7: More about Defining Your Data 81

Working with Dates and Times 82

Using the Date and Time Wizard 84

Creating and Using a Multiple-Response Set 86

Copying Data Properties 90

Part 3: Messing with Data in SPSS 95

Chapter 8: The Transform and Data Menus 97

Sorting Cases 97

Selecting the Data You Want to Look At 100

Splitting Data for Easier Analysis 103

Counting Case Occurrences 104

Recoding Variables 107

Recoding into different variables 107

Automatic recoding 110

Binning 113

Optimal Binning 117

Chapter 9: Computing New Variables 119

Calculating a New Variable with a Formula 120

Calculating a New Variable with a Condition 122

Using System Variables 124

Contrasting $Sysmis with SYSMIS 125

Understanding Missing Data in Formulas 127

Efficiently Calculating with Multiple Formulas 129

Chapter 10: Some Useful Functions 133

The LENGTH Function 134

The ANY Function 137

The MEAN Function and Missing Data 139

RND, TRUNC, and MOD 141

Logicals, the MISSING Function, and the NOT Function 143

String Parsing and Nesting Functions 144

Calculating Lags 146

Chapter 11: Combining Files 147

Merging Files by Adding Cases 147

Merging Files by Adding Variables 152

Part 4: Graphing Data 161

Chapter 12: On the Menu: Graphing Choices in SPSS 163

Building Graphs the Chart Builder Way 164

The Gallery tab 164

The Basic Elements tab 168

The Groups/Point ID tab 169

The Titles/Footnotes tab 170

The Element Properties tab 170

The Chart Appearance tab 176

The Options tab 177

Building Graphs with Graphboard Template Chooser 178

Chapter 13: Building Graphs Using Chart Builder 183

Simple Graphs 184

Simple scatterplots 184

Simple dot plots 185

Simple bar graphs 186

Simple error bars 187

Simple histograms 189

Population pyramids 191

Stacked area charts 192

Fancy Graphs 194

Charts with multiple lines 194

Colored scatterplots 196

Scatterplot matrices 198

Stacked bar charts 199

Pie charts 200

Clustered range bar graphs 202

Differenced area graphs 202

Dual-axis graph 204

Fancy Maps Using Graphboard Template Chooser 205

Heat map 206

Choropleth of values 206

Coordinates on a reference map 209

Part 5: Analyzing Data 211

Chapter 14: Using Descriptive Statistics 213

Looking at Levels of Measurement 213

Defining the four levels of measurement 214

Defining summary statistics 215

Focusing on Frequencies for Categorical Variables 217

Understanding Frequencies for Continuous Variables 221

Summarizing Continuous Variables with the

Descriptives Procedure 224

Chapter 15: Knowing When Not to Trust Your Data 227

Sampling 227

Understanding Sample Size 228

Testing Hypotheses 229

Calculating Confidence Intervals 231

Conducting In-Depth Hypothesis Testing 232

Using the Normal Distribution 235

Working with Z-Scores 236

Chapter 16: Testing One Group 239

Conducting Inferential Tests 239

Running the Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test 240

Running the One-Sample T-Test Procedure 246

Chapter 17: Showing Relationships between Categorical Variables 251

Running the Crosstabs Procedure 252

Running the Chi-Square Test of Independence 256

Comparing Column Proportions 260

Adding Control Variables 261

Creating a Clustered Bar Chart 264

Chapter 18: Showing Relationships between Continuous Dependent and Categorical Independent Variables 267

Conducting Inferential Tests 268

Using the Compare Means Dialog 268

Running the Independent-Samples T-Test Procedure 269

Comparing the Means Graphically 275

Running the Summary Independent-Samples T-Test Procedure 277

Running the Paired-Samples T-Test Procedure 280

Chapter 19: Showing Relationships between Continuous Variables 285

Viewing Relationships 286

Running the Bivariate Procedure 288

Running the Simple Linear Regression Procedure 292

Part 6: Getting More Advanced with Analyzing Data 301

Chapter 20: Doing More Advanced Analyses 303

Running the One-Way ANOVA Procedure 303

Conducting Post Hoc Tests 311

Comparing Means Graphically 314

Running the Multiple Linear Regression Procedure 315

Viewing Relationships 325

Chapter 21: What Is Normal Anyway? 327

Understanding Nonparametric Tests 328

Understanding Distributions 328

Running a Nonparametric Independent Samples Test 331

Running a Nonparametric Related Samples Test 338

Chapter 22: When to Do What 345

Determining Which Statistical Test to Perform 346

Using Advanced Techniques 350

Part 7: Making SPSS Your Own 351

Chapter 23: Changing Settings 353

General Options 354

Language Options 356

Viewer Options 357

Data Options 358

Currency Options 360

Output Options 361

Chart Options 362

Pivot Tables Options 364

File Locations Options 365

Scripts Options 366

Multiple Imputations Options 368

Syntax Editor Options 369

Privacy Options 370

Chapter 24: Editing Charts and Chart Templates 371

Changing and Editing Axes 372

Changing the axis range 372

Scaling the axis range 373

Changing Style: Lines and Symbols 376

Editing chart lines 376

Editing data points 378

Applying Templates 380

Chapter 25: Editing Tables 383

Working with TableLooks 384

Style Output 387

Pivoting Trays 390

Part 8: Programming SPSS with Command Syntax 393

Chapter 26: Getting Acquainted with Syntax 395

Pasting 396

Performing a Series of Related Compute Statements 399

Labeling 400

Repeatedly Generating the Same Report 400

Chapter 27: Adding Syntax to Your Toolkit 403

Your Wish Is My Command 404

Understanding Keywords 405

Declaring Data 406

Commenting Your Way to Clarity 407

Running Your Code 408

Controlling Flow and Executing Conditionals 410

IF 410

DO IF 411


Part 9: The Part of Tens 413

Chapter 28: Ten (or So) Modules You Can Add to SPSS 415

The Advanced Statistics Module 416

The Custom Tables Module 416

The Regression Module 418

The Categories Module 418

The Data Preparation Module 419

The Decision Trees Module 419

The Forecasting Module 420

The Missing Values Module 421

The Bootstrapping Module 421

The Complex Samples Module 422

The Conjoint Module 422

The Direct Marketing Module 422

The Exact Tests Module 423

The Neural Networks Module 424

Chapter 29: Ten Useful SPSS Resources 425

Supporting Websites for This Book 425

LinkedIn and LinkedIn Groups 426

IBM SPSS Statistics Certification 427

IBM Data Science Community 427


Online Videos 428

Twitter 429

Live Instruction 430

Asynchronous Instruction and Tutorials 431

SPSS Statistics for Data Analysis and Visualization 432

Chapter 30: Ten SPSS Statistics Gotchas 433

Failing to Declare Level of Measurement 433

Conflating String Values with Labels 434

Failing to Declare Missing Data 435

Failing to Find Add-on Modules and Plug-Ins 435

Failing to Meet Statistical and Software Assumptions 437

Confusing Pasting Syntax with Copy and Paste 438

Thinking You Create Variables in SPSS as You Do in Excel 438

Getting Confused by Listwise Deletion 439

Losing Track of Your Active Dataset 440

Forgetting to Turn Off Select and Split and Weight 441

Index 443

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