The World Turned Upside Down

Edition: 2nd
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2016-04-22
Publisher(s): Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $28.79

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Through a collection of speeches, letters, and primary accounts, and with a revised introduction that draws on an outpouring of scholarship over the past twenty years, Colin Calloway provides insight into the underrepresented Native American voices of the colonial, Revolutionary, and early national periods. With four new text documents and four new visual source documents, the volume continues to portray such themes as loss of land, war and peace, missionaries and Christianity, the education of Native American youth, European technology, European alcohol, and political changes within Indian societies in Early America. Revised Questions for Consideration and an updated Selected Bibliography, along with a new Chronology of Encounters between Indians and Colonists, serve to further support student learning.

Author Biography

Colin G. Calloway is the John Kimball Jr. 1943 Professor of History and Professor of Native American Studies at Dartmouth College. He served for two years as associate director of and editor at the D’Arcy McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian at the Newberry Library in Chicago and taught for seven years at the University of Wyoming. Professor Calloway has written many books on Native American history, including The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and The Transformation of North America (2006); One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark (2003); and two books for the Bedford Series in History and Culture: Our Hearts Fell to the Ground: Plains Indians Views of How the West Was Lost (1996), and The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (1994).

Table of Contents

Maps and Illustrations 
Introduction: “Times Are Altered with Us Indians” 
A World of Changes 
Indians in Colonial America 
Sources of Indian History: Weighing the Evidence 
The Documents
1. Voices from the Shore 
     The Creation of the World 
     1. John Norton, Iroquois Creation Story, ca. 1816 
     The League of Peace in Wampum
     2. The Hiawatha Belt
     The Creeks Come to Their Homeland 
     3. Chekilli, Origin of the Creek Confederacy, 1735 
     A Dream of Strangers 
     4. Josiah Jeremy, The Floating Island, 1869 
     Meeting the Dutch at Manhattan 
     5. John Heckewelder, The Arrival of the Dutch, ca. 1765 
    “What Can You Get by Warre . . .?” 
     6. Powhatan, Speech to Captain John Smith, 1609 
     A Pequot Looks Back at King Philip’s War
     7. William Apess, Eulogy on King Philip, 1836
2. Cultural Conflicts, Contests, and Confluences 
     A Native American Theological Debate 
     8. John Eliot, A Dialogue between Piumbukhou and His Unconverted Relatives, ca. 1671 
A Mi’kmaq Questions French “Civilization” 
9. Chrestien LeClerq, A Mi’kmaq Responds to the French, ca. 1677 
An Indian Woman Bequeaths Her Property 
10. Naomai Omaush, Will, 1749 
Autobiography of an Indian Minister 
11. Samson Occom, A Short Narrative of My Life, 1768 
Letters of a Narragansett Family 
12. Sarah Simon, Letter to Eleazar Wheelock, 1767 
13. Sarah Simon (the Daughter), Letter to Eleazar Wheelock, 1769 
14. Daniel Simon, Letter to Eleazar Wheelock, 1771 
The Iroquois Reject Wheelock’s “Benevolence” 
15. Speech of the Oneida Headmen, 1772 
16. Speech of the Onondaga Council, 1772 
 A Delaware “Mouthpiece” 
17. Joseph Pepee, Response to the Unconverted Delawares, 1772 
“The White Woman of the Genesee” 
18. Mary Jemison, A Narrative of Her Life, 1824 

3. Land, Trade, and Treaties 
     Submission to “Old England” 
     19. Narragansett Indians, Act of Submission, 1644 
     Two Land Deeds from Maine 
     20. Nanuddemance, Deed to John Parker, June 14, 1659 
     21. Jane of Scarborough, Deed to Andrew and Arthur Alger, September 19, 1659 
     Indian Land Claims Disputed 
     22. Mittark, Agreement of Gay Head Indians Not to Sell Land to the English, 1681 
     The “River Indians” Answer Governor Burnet 
     23. Mahican Indians, Reply to William Burnet, Governor of New York, 1722
     The Alienation of the Natchez 
     24. Antoine Le Page du Pratz, Reply of the Stung Serpent, 1723 
     Signing and Disputing a Treaty 
     25. Eastern Indians, Treaty Pictographs, 1725
     26. Sauguaarum, alias Loron, An Account of Negotiations Leading to the Casco Bay Treaty, 1727 
     The “Walking Purchase”: A Delaware Complaint and an Iroquois Response 
     27. Delaware Indians, Complaint against the “Walking Purchase,” November 21, 1740 
     28. Canasatego, Response to the Delawares’ Complaint, July 12, 1742 

     The Treaty of Lancaster 
     29. Canasatego, Speech at the Treaty of Lancaster, July 4, 1744 
     A Guardian System for Indian Lands 
     30. Indians at Mashpee, Petition to the Massachusetts General Court, June 11, 1752 
     Resolving Conflicts with Colonial Neighbors 
     31. King Hagler (Nopkehe), Reply to Colonists’ Complaints, 1754 
     Colonists Encroach on the Stanwix Line
     32. John Killbuck, Speech to the Governors of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, December 4, 1771 
4. In a World of Warfare: Indians and the Wars for Empire 
La Barre’s Failed Bluff 
     33. Garangula, Speech to New France Governor La Barre, 1684 
     A Native War Record
     34. Drawings Made on a Tree by an Iroquois War Party
     Iroquois Loyalty Turns to Disenchantment 
     35. Cheda, Promise to Uphold the Covenant Chain, 1692 
     Intertribal Conflict Fostered by Colonists 
    36. Gachadow, Speech to the Virginia Commissioners at the Treaty of Lancaster, 1744 
    The Half King Defies the French
    37. Tanaghrisson, Speech to Sieur de Marin, 1753
    Allies and Enemies in Indian Country
    38. English and French Copies of Chickasaw Deerskin Maps, c. 1723 and 1737
    The Chickasaws Appeal for Help 
    39. Chickasaw Headmen, Speech to the Governor of South Carolina, April 5, 1756 
    French and Indian Wars, or French and English Wars? 
    40. Delaware Indians, Response to the Moravian Ambassador, 1758 
    A New Era for Algonkians and Englishmen 
    41. Minavavana, Speech to Alexander Henry, 1761 
    Pontiac’s War 137
    42. Pontiac, The Master of Life Speaks to the Wolf, 1763 
    The Pleas and Plight of the Choctaw Chiefs 
    43. Choctaw Chiefs, Speeches to John Stuart, Mobile, Alabama, 1772 
5. American Indians and the American Revolution, 1775–1783 
     The Oneidas Declare Neutrality 
     44. Oneida Indians, Speech to Governor Trumbull, 1775 
     Joseph Brant Addresses His Majesty’s Secretary of State 
     45. Joseph Brant, Address to Lord Germain, 1776 
     Cherokees Fight for Their Survival 
     46. Corn Tassel, Speech at Treaty Talks with Virginia and North Carolina, 1777 
     Struggling to be Neutral in the Ohio Valley
     47. Cornstalk, Message to Congress, 1776
    The Revolution through the Eyes of a Seneca Woman 
    48. Mary Jemison, A View of the Revolution, 1775–1779 
    The Revolution through Captain Pipe’s Eyes 
    49. Captain Pipe, Speech to British Colonel DePeyster, November 1781 

    Adjusting to New Realities: The Chickasaws’ Revolution 
    50. Chickasaw Chiefs, Message to Congress, July 1783 
    Brant Demands the Truth 
    51. Joseph Brant, Message to Governor Frederick Haldimand, 1783
6. Indian Voices from the New Nation 
      Alexander McGillivray Rejects American Pretensions 
     52. Alexander McGillivray, Letter to Governor Arturo O’Neill, July 10, 1785 

     The United Indian Nations Announce a New Policy 
     53. United Indian Nations, Speech at the Confederate Council, November 28 and December 18, 1786 
     The World Turned Upside Down 
     54. Henry Quaquaquid and Robert Ashpo, Petition to the Connecticut State Assembly, May 1789 
     Joseph Brant Weighs Indian and White Civilizations 
    55. Joseph Brant, Indian vs. White Civilization, 1789 
    First Americans Address the First President
    56. Speech of Cornplanter, Half Town, and Big Tree to George Washington, 1790
Epilogue: Surviving as Vanishing Americans 

     Chronology of Encounters between Indians and Colonists (1492-1800)
     Questions for Consideration 
     Selected Bibliography 

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